Born in Buffalo, New York, John Roberts grew up in northern Indiana. He was a standout student and athlete who attended and graduated summa cum laude from Harvard, with a degree in history, after three years. At Harvard Law School he was a managing editor of the Harvard Law Review, from which he graduated magna cum laude in 1979. After graduation, Roberts clerked for Judge Henry Friendly on the Second Circuit Court of Appeals and then, in 1980-81, for William Rehnquist on the Supreme Court. Subsequently Roberts worked as Special Assistant to U.S. Attorney General William Smith. He was Deputy Solicitor General from 1989 to 1993, before returning to private practice. In 2003, Roberts was re-nominated and confirmed to sit on the influential D.C. circuit. In 2005, President George W. Bush nominated Roberts to the Supreme Court, to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Justice Sandra Day O’Connor. However, when Chief Justice William Rehnquist passed away, Bush re-nominated Roberts for the position of Chief Justice. Roberts was confirmed by a vote of 78-22.