Archbishop John Ireland c. 1908

In a last ditch attempt to avoid a strike, the United Mine Workers sent a telegram on May 8, 1902 to the railroad presidents offering to submit the miners' demands to an arbitration committee whose five members would be selected by the Industrial Branch of the National Civic Federation or in the alternative by a committee composed of Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul, Minnesota, Bishop Henry Potter of New York and an another person these two religious men would select. But the railroad men unanimously refused this arbitration offer. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-52059.