The "Piltdown Man", discovered in England in 1912, was thought to be an unknown form of early human. For decades it was held up as proof of Darwin's theory. One of the greatest hoaxes in science, it took 40 years to discover that what was thought to be the skull of an unknown form of early human was actually the lower jawbone of an orangutan that had been deliberately combined with the skull of a fully developed, modern man. The photo is of a portrait painted by John Cooke in 1915. Back row (from left): F. O. Barlow, G. Elliot Smith, Charles Dawson, Arthur Smith Woodward. Front row: A. S. Underwood, Arthur Keith, W. P. Pycraft, and Sir Ray Lankester.