Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744 - 1829)

Lamarck was a French naturalist whose ideas were largely attacked or ignored during his lifetime. He died in poverty. Lamarck was overshadowed by his rival and critic Georges Cuvier. However, Charles Darwin and others credited Lamarck for being an accomplished zoologist and early thinker about evolution. Lamarck is known for his theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics, also called Lamarckism.