George F. Baer, President Philadelphia and Reading Railway

During his closing arguments on behalf of the coal operators, Baer told the commission: "The lawlessness in the coal regions was the direct result of mistaken theories of the rights of the Mine Workers. It will not do to say that the leaders have not encouraged violence and crime. It is true, no doubt, that they did not directly advise it. They at times counseled against it and issued paper proclamations calling for peace; and at other times, as they did on the witness stand, they have expressed regrets for it. Nevertheless, they are legally and morally responsible for the situation they have created, and from which this violence and crime resulted."