The McNamara Brothers Trial



"Unionist Bombs Wreck The Times"

– Headlines from abbreviated edition of the Los Angeles Times, October 1, 1910, published at the facilities of the Los Angeles Herald.

"O you anarchist scum, you cowardly murderers, you leeches upon honest labor, you midnight assassins, you whose hands are dripping with the innocent blood of your victims, you against whom the wails of poor widows and the cries of fatherless children are ascending to the Great White Throne, go mingle with the crowd on the street corners, look upon the crumbled and blackened walls, look at the ruins wherein are buried the calcined remains of those whom you murdered."

– Editorial by General Harrison Gray Otis owner and publisher of the Los Angeles Times, October 1, 1910.


Trial Documents

Final Report of the Los Angeles County Grand Jury.

Year long investigation into the bombing of the Los Angeles Times and the deaths of twenty employees. The report concludes that the theory that leaking gas caused the explosion was wrong.


Defense Attorneys Ask Judge Bordwell to Recuse Himself.

Short transcript of meetings between McNamara defense attorneys and Judge Bordwell. The defense attorneys ask Judge Bordwell to recuse himself from the case but he denied the request. Courtesy of the Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.


Judge Bordwell's Deposition Denying Bias.

Judge Bordwell gave a signed deposition denying he was biased or prejudiced against the McNamara defense after the defense filed a motion to get the case transferred to another judge citing bias by Judge Bordwell. Courtesy of the Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.


Deposition of Job Harriman and Letter from J.H. Levering.

Part of a deposition of Job Harriman in regard to the defense hiring of J. H. Levering, an engineer to study the bombing of the Los Angeles Times. Also includes a letter from Levering to Judge Bordwell about Clarence Darrow. Courtesy of the Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.


The People of the State of California v. Matthew Schmidt, Appellate Briefs (1916).

Matthew Schmidt and David Caplan helped Jim McNamara purchase the dynamite that was used to bomb the Los Angeles Times building. Schmidt and Caplan were indicted in 1911 along with the McNamara brothers but they evaded arrest until 1915. Detective William Burns could find no trace of Schmidt until some I.W.W. members were killed by their own bomb in 1915. Burns' detectives discovered that the bomb was made of the same material and was similar in construction to the one used in Los Angeles by Jim McNamara. Schmidt was arrested on February 13, 1915 by Burns and a police captain in Los Angeles. Caplan was arrested five days later. Schmidt was convicted on December 30, 1915 and on January 12, 1916 he was sentenced to life in prison. Caplan's trial began in April 1916 but ended in a hung jury. He was retried and convicted of second degree manslaughter in December 1916 and was sentenced to ten years in prison. Courtesy of the LA Law Library.

Cases

Ryan v. U.S., 216 F. 13 (7th Cir. 1914).

Frank M. Ryan, president of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers, and twenty-nine others were convicted of conspiracy and of transporting, aiding, and abetting the transportation of dynamite and nitroglycerin in interstate commerce in passenger trains and cars. The evidence in this case was the direct result of the investigation into the Los Angeles Times Bombing and involved substantial investigations in Indianapolis. Olaf Tveitmoe was also convicted and sentenced as part of this trial although he did not belong to the International Association. The case against Tveitmoe and five other defendants was remanded to the District Court for a new trial. During the retrial the court ruled that there was insufficient evidence to connect Tveitmoe to the conspiracy.

Statutes

An Act To create a Commission on Industrial Relations, Act of August 23, 1912, ch. 351, 37 Stat. L. 415.

The bombing of the Los Angeles Times in which 20 people died was so shocking and traumatic that calls were made to investigate the causes of conflict between labor and industry. On December 30, 1911 a group of reformers led by Jane Addams and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise sent President Taft a petition, signed by numerous social reformers, professors and some businessmen, requesting that he create a commission to investigate the conflict that led to the bombing. President Taft agreed to form such a commission but he did not announce the names of commission members selected until December 1912, which was after he had lost his re-election bid to Woodrow Wilson. This allowed Wilson to choose his own members. The nine person commission was given a $100,000 budget and it held 154 days of hearings involving hundreds of witnesses. Among those called to testify were Clarence Darrow, General Otis, Walter Drew, William Haywood and numerous others with either pro-labor or pro-business viewpoints. The commission published its results in an 11 volume report in 1916.

Government Documents

William Haywood Testimony Before the Commission on Industrial Relations.

Copy of Haywood's testimony republished by the Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W.).


Testimony of Stephen "S.S." Gregory before the Commission on Industrial Relations.

S.S Gregory was a very prominent attorney and at one time the president of the American Bar Association. He worked with Clarence Darrow as associate counsel during the appeal of the Debs decision to the United States Supreme Court after the Pullman strike. He also worked with Darrow to try and save the life of Patrick Prendergast who was convicted and sentenced to death for the assassination of Chicago mayor Carter Harrison, Sr.


Los Angeles Ordinance 20586 (July 16, 1910).

Very controversial anti-picketing ordinance written by Earl Rogers as counsel for the Merchants and Manufacturers Association. The ordinance, unanimously adopted by the Los Angeles city council several months before the Los Angeles Times bombing, was aimed at disrupting union activities in Los Angeles. Rogers later lead the initial investigation into the Los Angeles Times bombing and subsequently defended Clarence Darrow against bribery charges.


Testimony of Clarence Darrow before the Commission on Industrial Relations.

Clarence Darrow testified on May 17, 1915.


Testimony of Walter Drew Before the Commission on Industrial Relations (1915).

Walter Drew was counsel for the National Erectors' Association and a strong proponent of Open Shops.


Testimony of Mr. William D. Haywood before the Commission on Industrial Relations (1916).

Haywood along with others, including Clarence Darrow, gave testimony before the Commission.


Testimony of Anton Johannsen before the Commission on Industrial Relations (1916).

Johannsen was a powerful San Francisco labor leader. It was widely believed that Johannsen and Olaf Tveitmoe arranged for the bombing of the Los Angeles Times building.


The Open and Closed Shop Controversy in Los Angeles (1916).

Begins with testimony from General Harrison Gray Otis on September 8, 1914. From volume 6 of the Final Report of the Commission on Industrial Relations.

Legal Articles

Earl Rogers, Esq.: A Noted Criminal Defense Lawyer (1910).

Article about Earl Rogers who lead the initial investigation into the bombing of the Los Angeles Times building. He later defended Clarence Darrow against charges of jury bribery. Coincidently, the article was published on the same day the Los Angeles Times was bombed.


The Limits of Counsel's Legitimate Defense by John H. Wigmore.

Very critical commentary about Clarence Darrow''s handling of the McNamara defense by John Wigmore, Dean of Northwestern University Law School. 17 Virginia Law Register 743 (1912).


Does The American Bar Stand For It? (1912).

Article critical of Clarence Darrow's actions in the McNamara case. The article reprints Professor Wigmore's criticism and agrees with it. Published in "The Bar," the official journal of the West Virginia Bar Association.


Dynamite Conspiracy Case

Brief coverage of the trial of numerous members of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Ironworkers. This trial was a direct result of the investigation into the Los Angeles Times bombing. 20 Virginia Law Register 793 (Feb. 1915).


The McNamara Sentence Justified by Francis J. Heney.

From the Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology.

Pamphlets

The Los Angeles Times on Trade Unions (1907).

This critical commentary on the anti-union stance of the Los Angeles Times was written approximately three years before the Los Angeles Times Bombing.


Capitalism's Conspiracy in California: Parallel of the Kidnapping of Labor Leaders Colorado--California by Frank Wolfe (1911).

A pro-labor comparison between the arrest and extradition of the McNamara defendants with the arrest and extradition of the defendants in the 1907 Big Bill Haywood trial. Frank Wolfe, a journalist and former editor of the Los Angeles Herald, became a publicist for the McNamara defense and also ran as a Socialist candidate for city council.


A Letter from General Harrison Gray Otis (1914).

Obituary for Harrison Gray Otis followed by a letter that Otis wrote in 1914 to his son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Chandler about the future of the Los Angeles Times. Otis was the President and General Manager of the Los Angeles Times.

Magazine Articles

A Corner in Labor: What is Happening in San Francisco Where Unionism Holds Undisputed Sway by Ray Stannard Baker (1904).

Article from McClure's Magazine describing the extent of union power and influence in San Francisco.


The Story of a Reformer's Wife: An Account of the Kidnapping of Fremont Older, The Shooting of Francis J. Heney, and The San Francisco Dynamite Plots By Mrs. Fremont Older (1909).

From McClure's Magazine.


They Who Strike in the Dark by Will Irwin.

"True Stories of Plots, Abductions, Dynamiting and Attempted Murder That Have Been Undertaken Against Those Concerned as Witnesses, Lawyers or Supporters of the San Francisco Graft Prosecution." The American Magazine (1909).


Los Angeles Anti-Picketing Ordinance.

Criticism of the anti-picketing ordinance enacted in Los Angeles in 1910. Published in The Blacksmiths Journal.


The McNamara Case--Will They Get a Fair Trial?--Secretary McNamara Re-Elected (1911).

From the Locomotive Firemen's Magazine published by the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen.


A Militant Editor-General (1911).

Commentary on General Harrison Gray Otis published in Sunset magazine.


The Trial at Los Angeles by Christopher P. Connolly (1911).

Coverage of personalities in the McNamara case from Collier's.


Organized Labor's New Game (1911).

Criticism of Clarence Darrow's article "Why Men Fight for the Closed Shop." From American Industries: The Manufacturers' Magazine published by the National Association of Manufacturers.


What is the Matter with Los Angeles? (1911).

Article about the upcoming mayoral election in Los Angeles in which Job Harriman, co-counsel with Clarence Darrow in the McNamara case, was running for election on the Socialist ticket.


Detective Burns' Own Story of His Great Case (1911).

This article in McClure's Magazine describes the investigation led by William J. Burns into the dynamite campaign by the International Association of Bridge and Structural Ironworkers union.


Commentary on the Los Angeles Times Bombing (1912).

Commentary on the Los Angeles Times bombing and the factors leading to it and the need for a Commission on Industrial Relations. Includes a symposium of contributions from various prominent citizens. Published in The Survey.


What the Dictograph Is (1912).

Article about the dictograph bugging device. Briefly mentions its use in the McNamara case. Published in The World's Work.


How Burns Caught the Dynamiters (1912).

A short article from McClure's Magazine detailing William J. Burns' version of how he tracked down the McNamara brothers.


Gompers and Burns on Unionism and Dynamite (1912).

Interviews of Samuel Gompers and William Burns given to McClure's Magazine shortly after the McNamara brothers confessed to the blowing up of the Los Angeles Times Building.


Darrow's Lecture Scheme (1913).

Criticism of Clarence Darrow, his defense of the McNamara brothers, his receipt of money for lectures, and the American Federation of Labor. From The Review, a monthly publication of the National Founders' Association and National Trades Association.


Conspiracy Trial of International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers union members (1913).

Article about the conspiracy trial of about fifty members of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers union including their president, Frank Ryan. This trial was the direct result of the investigation into the Los Angeles Times bombing and was the largest criminal conspiracy trial in American history up to that time.


Labor and the Law as Viewed by Those Who Represent Each by Graham Taylor (1915).

Commentary and coverage of the United States Industrial Relations Commission. Published in The Survey.

Newspapers

A History of Organized Felony and Folly: The Record of Union Labor in Crime and Economics.

Compilation of thirty-two articles critical of labor unions and union violence published in the Wall Street Journal during the fall and winter of 1922. It includes articles about the Los Angeles Times bombing.


Famous McNamara Case (1910).

Various editions of the Los Angeles Times published after the bombing. Quality varies due to microfilm.


Famous McNamara Case (1910).

The Washington Herald news article printed one day after the Los Angeles Times bombing.


Famous McNamara Case (1910).

The Washington Herald news article (Continuation).


The Los Angeles Times for 1911 and On (1911).

Defiant Los Angeles Times commentary written before the arrest of the suspects in the Los Angeles Times bombing. Published by the Times-Mirror Company in its "Emergency Publication Office."


Spied on McManigal in Cell (1911).

News about the use of a dictaphone in Ortie McManigal's jail cell.


The McNamara Fund (1911).

From the Box Elder news, this news article is critical of labor leaders and the amount of money collected from union members to help pay for the defense of the McNamara brothers.


Dictograph Near Darrow (1912).

News article about the covert bugging of Clarence Darrow's conversations with John Harrington in the Hayward Hotel in Los Angeles.


Burns Wins Over A Hostile Audience (1912).

The New York Times published this article about a speech given by detective Robert Burns before the Liberal Club that Lincoln Steffens helped form. The speech occurred about five weeks after Clarence Darrow was indicted for jury bribery. Speaking about the McNamara case, Burns told the audience: "With the best of motives in the world [Steffens] was simply taken in by the clever Darrow. Darrow led him to believe that his proposition was being given weighty consideration. What he did not know was the pressure we had on Darrow that made the saving of Darrow a thing of prime importance. C.P. Connolly took the view of the case that Darrow moved to save Darrow, and Connolly was dead right."


Bomb Attack in Darkness (1919).

A newspaper account of the firebombing of Oscar Lawler's home which nearly killed him and his family in 1919. The attack was not related to the McNamara case but involved another person prosecuted for industrial warfare.

Books

The Labor Problem by Herbert V. Ready (1904).

Very critical commentary on labor unions in San Francisco.


The National Dynamite Plot: being the authentic account of the attempts of union labor to destroy the structural iron industry by Ortie McManigal (1913).

Ortie McManigal's confession of the nationwide sabotage campaign alleged orchestrated by the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers union.


The Masked War by William J. Burns (1913).

Burns version of the detective work performed by him and his agency to apprehend the McNamara brothers for bombing the Los Angeles Times building and the related investigation of the International Union of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers for dynamite sabotage.


The National Erectors' Association and the International Association of Bridge and Structural Ironworkers by Luke Grant (1915).

Comprehensive study of the labor troubles between the National Erectors' Association and the International Association of Bridge and Structural Ironworkers prepared for the United States Commission on Industrial Relations.


"The System" As Uncovered by The San Francisco Graft Prosecution (1915).

Earl Rogers played an important role in defending Patrick Calhoun, president of United Railroads of San Francisco, during an extensive graft prosecution in San Francisco involving corruption and bribery of public officials.


Cases and Other Authorities on Legal Ethics by George P. Costigan, Jr. (1917).

This excerpt from a law school casebook published in 1917 is identified by a reviewer as perhaps the first casebook to provide a selection of cases as the basis for a course of instruction in legal ethics. The book uses Clarence Darrow's actions in the McNamara case and Darrow's subsequent bribery trial as examples. When Darrow learned that the author was going to publish these examples, he contacted the author, who published a written statement by Darrow.


Ironworkers 100th anniversary, 1896-1996 : A History of the Iron Workers Union (1996).

Cover and chapters 1 & 3 of this 100th anniversary book. Chapter 3 covers the Los Angeles Times bombing. Used with permission from the International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers.

Miscellaneous

Cyrus F. McNutt (1901).

Bio of Cyrus F. McNutt, a retired Indiana judge, who assisted Clarence Darrow during his defense of the McNamara brothers.


Mr. Otis and the Los Angeles "Times" (1915).

Criticism of General Harrison Gray Otis "Prepared by an Authorized Publicity Committee of Los Angeles Typographical Union No. 174."


William J. Burns Advertisement.

This advertisement for detective William J. Burns calls him "The Greatest Silent Factor In American Public Life."


Miscellaneous Letters Written to Judge Bordwell and the Grand Jury (1911).

Courtesy of the Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.


Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League (1907).

The Asiatic Exclusion League was a racist labor organization formed to prevent Asians from competing for jobs. It's formation on May 14, 1905 in San Francisco is the official beginning of the anti-Japanese movement. Among those attending the first meeting were labor leaders Patrick Henry McCarthy and Olaf Tveitmoe of the Building Trades Council of San Francisco. Tveitmoe became the first president of the organization. Tveitmoe was a major figure in the labor troubles that led to the bombing of the Los Angeles Times. He was believed by the prosecution to be one of those behind the bombing. He also allegedly laundered money for Clarence Darrow to be used for jury bribery. McCarthy was an influential labor leader in San Francisco and Mayor of the City from 1910 to 1912.


Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League (1908).

Contains an editorial written by Olaf Tveitmoe, president of the Asiatic Exclusion League, about proposed legislative changes to the Chinese Exclusion Act.


Letter from Father of the McNamara Brothers to Judge Bordwell (1911).

John A. McNamara wrote this letter to Judge Bordwell asking for mercy for his sons. Contains copies of the transcription and the handwritten letter. Courtesy of the Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.


Clarence Darrow's statement given to newspapers the day of the McNamara Brothers' guilty plea (1911).

Clarence Darrow's statement explaining why his clients pled guilty.


Judge Bordwell's Response to the Father of the McNamara Brothers (1911).

This typed letter, along with a handwritten draft, was written by Judge Bordwell in response to John A. McNamara's plea for mercy for his sons. Courtesy of the Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.


Statement given by Clarence Darrow to Newspapers After McNamara Brothers Plead Guilty (1911).

Clarence Darrow's explanation for why he had his clients plead guilty. The guilty pleas were so shocking and unexpected that Darrow must have felt compelled to offer his reasons.


A Federal Commission on Industrial Relations--Why it is Needed (1912).

Article discussing the need for the Commission on Industrial Relations created in the aftermath of the Los Angeles Times bombing. Published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science.


George Ray Horton.

Short bio of George R. Horton, a young assistant district attorney who worked on the McNamara prosecution. Published in the Press Reference Library (1912).


Joseph Scott.

Bio of Joseph Scott who was part of the McNamara defense team. The bio was written as the McNamara case was still pending. From the Press Reference Library (1912).


Report of McNamara Defense Fund (1912).

Published in the Railway Carmen's Journal.


Petition to the President for a Federal Commission on Industrial Relations (1921).

In the aftermath of the Los Angeles Times bombing and the McNamara guilty pleas, this petition was presented to President Taft on December 30, 1912 asking him to appoint a commission to study industrial problems between labor and capital. The petition led to the formation of the Commission on Industrial Relations.


The Field Before the Commission on Industrial Relations by Paul U. Kellogg (1913).

Discussion of the factors leading to the creation of the Commission on Industrial Relations. 28 Political Science Quarterly pp. 593-609 (Dec. 1913).


Famous McNamara Case.

Speeches by Anton Johannsen, Clarence Darrow and Mother Jones given at a labor meeting in 1915.


Some Phases of the Labor Question (1921).

Speech given by Walter Drew, commissioner of the National Erectors' Association.

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Photos


Samuel Gompers.
Samuel Gompers was the first and longest-serving president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Clarence Darrow explained in his autobiography The Story of My Life how he came to be involved in the McNamara case:
"Mr. Gompers, with several other members of the executive board of the American Federation of Labor, came to see me and asked me to assume the defense. I urged them to get some one else. Of course I realized that the men should be defended, but I felt that I had done my share of fighting. It was not easy to combat the powerful forces of society in the courts, as I had doing for many years . . . . But the representatives of the Federation of Labor were so urgent that at last I could not refuse. How many times thereafter I wished that I had insisted upon some one younger and stronger and more anxious for the task. But I could not turn back. It seemed destined that I should take that path."
LC-USZ62-19862, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington.

Samuel Gompers c. 1908.
When the McNamara brothers' guilty pleas became public, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) was meeting at its convention in Atlanta. The meeting had been dominated by the McNamara trial with fundraising efforts being made, including asking workers to give up a whole week's wages to support the defense. The AFL leadership felt betrayed, especially its president Samuel Gompers, who put his reputation on the line by insisting that the McNamaras were innocent. LC-USZ62-61896.

Talesmen in McNamara Case c. 1911.
"Talesmen" are jurors returned from bystanders or the body of the county to complete a panel after the list of regular jurors is exhausted because of challenge or other cause, and sometimes the word "talesmen" is used synonymously with "jurors." 47 American Jurisprudence 2d Jury sec. 1. LC-DIG-ggbain-09902, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Structural Iron Worker Four Hundred Feet High on the Singer Tower, New York.
Structural iron workers risked life and limb daily in their trade. Early structural ironworkers were not recognized as skilled workers by other building trades and it took years before they gained respect as skilled tradesmen. It also took years of struggle before they received pay commensurate with the dangers they faced on the job. The difference in skill required is demonstrated by the length of the apprenticeships found in agreements and contracts of this time, with the period of time ranging from six months to a maximum of eighteen months for ironworkers. In contrast, most of the other skilled building trades required three to five years of apprenticeship. As a union trade organizer put it in 1914, the trade takes "probably three to four months to learn how to heat and drive rivets" and after that the main learning goal was "to become accustomed to going up high and not falling off." Sidney Fine, Without Blare of Trumpets: Walter Drew, the National Erectors' Association, and the Open Shop Movement, 1903-57, 12 (1995).

Jurors.
Clarence Darrow wrote in his autobiography The Story of My Life about picking a jury for the McNamara trial: "This was, as usual, a difficult task. The case had been given such wide publicity, and feelings were so high on both sides, that it was practically impossible to find any one who had no opinion and seemed able to offer both sides a fair consideration of the case at hand." LC-DIG-ggbain-09903, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Campaign Committee of Asiatic Exclusion League of California.
The Asiatic Exclusion League was a racist labor organization formed on May 14, 1905 in San Francisco to prevent Asians from competing for jobs. Among those attending the first meeting were Patrick Henry McCarthy, a labor leader and at one time mayor of San Francisco, and Olaf Tveitmoe of the Building Trades Council of San Francisco. Tveitmoe became the first president of the organization. It was widely believed that Tveitmoe and Anton Johannsen arranged for the bombing of the Los Angeles Times building. Dept. of Special Collections/UCLA Library, A1713 Charles E. Young Research Library.

Job Harriman.
Job Harriman (1861 - 1925) was initially the lead attorney for the McNamara defense until Clarence Darrow took over. Harriman was also the Socialist party candidate for mayor of Los Angeles and many believed he would win the election. The defense's guilty plea negotiations with the prosecution were kept secret from Harriman. The prosecution insisted that the brothers plead guilty before the mayoral election or the deal was off. The McNamara brothers pled guilty on Friday December 11, 1911 and the mayoral election was set for the following Tuesday. The guilty pleas fatally undermined Harriman's campaign and he lost the election. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-06415.

Dynamite Defendants Leave Federal Building, Indianapolis.
The investigation of the Los Angeles Times bombing led to the trial of 45 union men, mostly from the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers (IABSIW), for a nationwide dynamite sabotage campaign. They were charged with transporting dynamite and nitroglycerin aboard passenger trains engaged in interstate commerce and with conspiracy "to commit an offense against the United States." The trial, which began in October 1912, was considered the largest criminal conspiracy trial in American history up to that time and consisted of 499 witnesses for the prosecution, 188 witnesses for the defense, five thousand pages of documentary exhibits, and twenty-one thousand pages of testimony. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-11740.

Earl Rogers.
Earl Rogers was a famous attorney in Los Angeles. He led the initial investigation into the Los Angeles Times bombing. He later defended Clarence Darrow against charges that he bribed jurors.

Walter Drew.
Walter Drew was commissioner of the National Erectors' Association (NEA) from 1906 to 1957. Drew had been trying to destroy the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers (IABSIW) for years. Drew was heavily involved into the investigation of the IABSIW in Indianapolis where the union's headquarters was located. That investigation led to the Dynamite Conspiracy trial in 1912 which was the largest criminal conspiracy trial in American history up to that time. The trial was a near total victory for the prosecution with thirty-nine union defendants convicted. This included the union's president and all but two members of the IABSIW's leaders and local union leaders. Drew was also one of the most influential proponents of the Open Shop in the nation. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-06446.

Olaf A. Tveitmoe.
Olaf Tveitmoe was a powerful labor leader in San Francisco. It was believed that Tveitmoe was involved in the Los Angeles Times bombing and that he later conspired with Darrow to raise the money for bribing jurors in the McNamara trial. Tveitmoe was originally from Valdrez, Norway and he attended St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota. He was sentenced to 18 months in Stillwater prison in Minnesota for forgery committed in Goodhue County, Minnesota but he was pardoned by the governor in December 1894. His name is sometimes spelled Tvietmoe.

Lincoln Steffens.
Lincoln Steffens (1866 - 1936) was a very well-known muckraking journalist. Steffens considered himself a pivotal player in the plea negotiations between the McNamara brothers' defense and the prosecution. He would later devote three chapters of his autobiography to the case. Steffens was vocal about his involvement in the plea negotiations but his claims contrasted sharply with the prosecution and Judge Bordwell's version of the events. The same day he sentenced the McNamara brothers to prison, Judge Bordwell took the unusual step of releasing a statement about the pleas in which he categorically refuted Steffens' claims. Judge Bordwell explained that the guilty pleas were the result of the jury bribery allegations and not Steffens' influence. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-04702.

John J. McNamara, Secretary-Treasurer of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron-Workers.
From McClure's Magazine February 1912.

John E. Munsey.
After the Los Angeles Times bombing, Jim McNamara immediately went to San Francisco. When he realized he had murdered twenty people he became very frightened and felt unsafe in San Francisco so he went to Seattle but did not feel safe there so he headed to Chicago. But he decided Chicago was dangerous also so he went to Salt Lake City to stay with John Munsey. Munsey was later sentenced to six years imprisonment after being convicted in the Dynamite conspiracy case in Indianapolis.

Frank M. Ryan, President of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers.
Ryan and nearly forty other members of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers were convicted in the dynamite trials that resulted from the investigation of the Los Angeles Times bombing.

Herbert S. Hockin.
Ortie McManigal claimed in his confession that Hockin directed much of the dynamiting campaign. Hockin was convicted in the great Dynamite trial in Indianapolis in 1912.

William J. Burns.
When he took over the investigation into the Los Angeles Times bombing, Burns was already the most famous or notorious detective in the United States. Because of his work in the San Francisco graft investigation about four years earlier, Burns became friends with Lincoln Steffens and Fremont Older but enemies with Harrison Gray Otis and Earl Rogers. LC-USZ62-101093, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Iron workers in the Steel Frame of the Metropolitan Tower, looking toward the East River, New York City.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-57477.

Los Angeles c. 1908.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-133611.

Dynamiters Take Train, Indianapolis.
In February 1912, a federal grand jury in Indianapolis indicted fifty-four union men of which fifty-one were members of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers (IABSIW) for a nationwide dynamite sabotage campaign which included the bombing of the Los Angeles Times. The indicted men included Frank Ryan, president of the IABSIW, its Secretary J.J. McNamara, Ortie McManigal, and other top officials and local officers of the IABSIW. Olav Tveitmoe was also indicted although he was not a member of the IABSIW. Of those indicted, forty-five actually went to trial in October 1912. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-12296.

Dynamite Box at Indianapolis, (Jones Barn).
Piano box in which union leaders hid two quart cans of nitroglycerin and fifteen sticks of dynamite packed in sawdust. Detective William J. Burns was accused of planting this evidence to which Burns replied: "They're saying I "planted" these things before I found them. Well, if I were the most fiendish murder that ever drew the breath of life, I might have "planted" dynamite in the piano-box in Jones' barn. But how would I persuade John J. McNamara to buy the box and have it placed there for me and have the sawdust hauled to pack it with? What sort of records does a labor union pack in sawdust in a country barn? How did I get a lock on the box to fit James McNamara's keys? How did I arrange it that McManigal's keys would duplicate them?" The Dynamiters: A Great Case of Detective William J. Burns by Harvey J. O'Higgins, McClure's Magazine, vol. 37 (August 1911)
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-09156.

Building the Great Steel-framed Skyscrapers - Working High Above the Street, New York City c. 1906.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-69629.

Jones's Barn Where Dynamite was Found.
During the investigation into the Los Angeles Times bombing, investigators raided the headquarters of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers in Indianapolis. They also searched a barn outside of town owned by a W.D. Jones who had rented it to J.J. McNamara the secretary-treasurer of the union. McNamara told Jones he needed it to store union paperwork. In the barn they discovered a piano box that contained two quart cans of nitroglycerin and fifteen sticks of dynamite. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. LC-B2- 2192-3.

Los Angeles Times Building.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-08499.

Samuel Gompers on stand before Commission on Industrial Relations.
The Commission on Industrial Relations was a created by Congress in August 1912. During 1912 to 1915, the commission studied labor issues throughout the United States. In 1916, it published a final report (also known as the Walsh Report) consisting of eleven volumes and containing tens of thousands of pages of testimony from a wide range of witnesses including labor leaders and wealthy industrialists. Clarence Darrow testified before the commission. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-63627.

Jacob Henry Schiff before the Industrial Commission.
Jacob Henry Schiff (1847 - 1920), born in Germany and Jewish descent, was a very prominent New York City banker and philanthropist. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-18166.

Frank P. Walsh c. 1915.
Frank Walsh (1864 - 1939) was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson to head the Commission on Industrial Relations created in the aftermath of the bombing of the Los Angeles Times building. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-117861.

Dean John H. Wigmore.
John Wigmore, Dean of Northwestern Law School, severely criticized Clarence Darrow for receiving a $200,000 fund to defend the McNamara brothers because Wigmore, and many others, believed that Darrow knew the McNamaras were guilty. Wigmore wrote in an article “Clarence Darrow, acting as counsel under the law, systematically spent one hundred and ninety thousand dollars to extricate from justice men whom he knew to be guilty of the most atrocious crime in the calendar ... How can he defend himself? As we figure it, he must defend himself--or be recognized no longer in the ranks of an honorable profession.” The Limits of Counsel’s Legitimate Defense, 17 Virginia Law Reg. 743 (1911-1912).

Harrison Gray Otis.
When he was younger, Otis was not anti-union and had even been a member of the International Typographical Union. But after Otis took over the Los Angeles Times, he went through a series of labor struggles with the International Typographical Union until the union finally went on strike. In response, Otis brought in strikebreakers from Kansas City to get the L.A. Times published. Over time, Otis had become a sworn enemy of labor and he relished the role. After the struggle with the union, Otis "vowed never again to hire a union member" and the Los Angeles Times used colorful language in its paper to describe union and union members. Over time, Otis and the Los Angeles Times became increasingly well-known as staunch and vocal opponents of organized labor.

Mrs. Ortie McManigal with children and Clarence Darrow.
Clarence Darrow tried to get Emma McManigal to convince her husband Ortie to repudiate his confession. When Emma visited Ortie in the Los Angeles County jail she told him if he did not sign the note from Darrow repudiating his confession then he would never see her again. Ortie agreed but later the prosecution and Burns detectives convinced Ortie to repudiate his own repudiation and stand by his confession. The prosecution had also put great pressure on Emma to convince her husband to stand by his confession including bringing her before a grand jury and threatening her with contempt. Emma filed for divorce on October 14, 1911 alleging cruel and inhuman treatment because of the pressure being put on her by her husband, the prosecution and Burns' detectives. According to the New York Times she was being represented by Clarence Darrow in the divorce proceedings. Courtesy of University of Southern California, on behalf of the USC Special Collections.

Mrs. Ortie McManigal with children and Clarence Darrow.
The prosecution and Burns' detectives put so much pressure on Emma McManigal to convince her to persuade her husband Ortie to stand by his confession that she collapsed and had to be hospitalized. This turned out to be a public relations boost for the defense because it generated public sympathy. Job Harriman is on the left and Joseph Scott is on the right. Courtesy of University of Southern California, on behalf of the USC Special Collections.

Judge Walter Bordwell.
Judge Bordwell presided over the McNamara trial. The McNamara defense thought Judge Bordwell, who also presided over the grand jury that indicted the defendants, was biased against the defense. Bordwell was a Republican member of the Los Angeles establishment and he lived in the very exclusive California Club. The defense tried unsuccessfully to get him removed as the trial judge. Courtesy of University of Southern California, on behalf of the USC Special Collections.

Los Angeles Times Building.
As seen from the corner of Broadway and First Street. Courtesy of University of Southern California, on behalf of the USC Special Collections.

Ink Alley.
Ink Alley, located at rear of the Los Angeles Times Building where the dynamite was planted. Courtesy of University of Southern California, on behalf of the USC Special Collections.

Los Angeles Times Building.
Courtesy of University of Southern California, on behalf of the USC Special Collections.

Joseph Scott.
Joseph Scott was a well-known Catholic attorney in Los Angeles. Scott, whose mother was born in Ireland, was hired by the McNamara defense in part because the McNamaras were Irish. Scott was also president of the Los Angeles School board.

Francis Joseph Heney c. 1912.
Francis Joseph Heney (1859 - 1937) was a lawyer who served as Attorney General of the Arizona Territory between 1893 and 1895. Heney, as a special prosecutor, assisted William Burns during an investigation in 1905 into extensive land and timber fraud in Oregon. Haney then worked with Burns, Fremont Older, Lincoln Steffens and several others working in secret including President Theodore Roosevelt to investigate and uncover massive political graft and corruption in San Francisco. The investigation led to the confession of Abraham Ruef, a city political boss, the conviction of Mayor Eugene Schmitz, and the indictment of Patrick Calhoun, president of the United Railroad. Calhoun was the grandson of South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun. Patrick Calhoun hired Earl Rogers to defend him. The defense devised a strategy to prod labor unions into striking against the street railway companies and then Calhoun would gain favor by breaking the strike. The situation became very contentious and Heney was shot in the face but survived. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-62636.

Abe Ruef.
Abe Ruef (1864 - 1936) was a lawyer and politician. He became notorious as the political boss behind the administration of Mayor Eugene Schmitz of San Francisco. William J. Burns gained national fame during the investigation into San Francisco graft. The investigation led Ruef to confess to taking bribes. His confession led to the conviction of Mayor Schmitz and the indictment of Patrick Calhoun, the powerful president of the United Railroad. Calhoun hired Earl Rogers to defend him and was exonerated of the charges.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-05802.

Fremont Older.
In September 1907 Older's crusading led to his being kidnapped at gunpoint in San Francisco and forced onto a southbound train. By luck another passenger recognized Older and alerted authorities and he was rescued in Santa Barbara. According to Geoffrey Cowan in The People v. Clarence Darrow Older was kidnapped by Earl Rogers' henchmen.

Cyrus McNutt.
Cyrus McNutt was a retired Indiana judge. He was hired by the McNamara defense team because of his knowledge of Indiana law and he was pro-labor. McNutt was the only member of the McNamara defense team to serve on the defense for Darrow's bribery trial. McNutt died before the trial began which led to a short delay and he was replaced by Horace Appel. Darrow described the selection of McNutt to help defend the McNamaras: "Cyrus F. McNutt, a former member of the Supreme Court of Indiana, a man well learned in law, was also engaged. Judge McNutt was a man of unusual ability, and was thoroughly sympathetic toward the laboring class." Clarence Darrow, The Story of My Life.

Clarence Darrow, Job Harriman, Le Compte Davis and Joseph Scott.
McNamara brother defense team. From the Los Angeles Times, December 2, 1911.

No Mistake.
Editorial cartoon blaming labor for the bombing of the Los Angeles Times. "Public Opinion" is written on the hand pointing to the "Union Dynamiter."

They Prosecuted the McNamaras.
District Attorney John Fredericks, Assistant District Attorney Joseph Ford and Chief Trial District Attorney George R. Horton. Clarence Darrow faced Fredericks and Ford during the McNamara case. Fredericks and Ford prosecuted Darrow in his first bribery trial. Ford assisted a different prosecutor in Darrow's second bribery trial. From the Los Angeles Times.

P.H. McCarthy.
Patrick Henry McCarthy (1863 - 1933) was a powerful labor leader in San Francisco and served as Mayor from 1910 to 1912. He was more commonly known as P.H. McCarthy and sometimes by the nickname "Pinhead." Olaf Tveitmoe gained power in San Francisco in part because of his close association with McCarthy. McCarthy was born in County Limerick, Ireland and came to the United States in 1880.

The Open Shop by Clarence Darrow.
Clarence Darrow was a vocal critic of open shops. An open shop is a place of employment that does not require employees to join or financially support a labor union as a condition of being hired or to continue being employed. In contrast, a closed shop is a place of employment where all employees must be members of a union. Cover from pamphlet.

General Harrison Gray Otis.
General Harrison Gray Otis was the owner and publisher of the Los Angeles Times. Otis, originally from Marietta, Ohio, came from a family that instilled strong loyalty to patriotic causes. His grandfather served in the Revolutionary War, and his father was an ardent abolitionist who housed runaway slaves for the Underground Railroad. Otis served valiantly in the Union Army's Twelfth Ohio Voluntary Infantry during most of the Civil War. He was called "General" because of his Civil War service and because he preferred fighting to discussion.

The McNamara Brothers - James, John J. and Hogan McNamara.
Hogan McNamara was not involved in the union violence.

Fremont Older.
Fremont Older (1856 - 1935) was newspaperman and editor in San Francisco for nearly fifty years. He became well-known for his crusade against corruption. Older played a key role in the investigation of massive political graft and corruption in San Francisco. The investigation led to the confession of Abraham Ruef, a city political boss, the conviction of Mayor Eugene Schmitz, and the indictment of Patrick Calhoun, president of the United Railroad. Calhoun was the grandson of South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun. Patrick Calhoun hired Earl Rogers to defend him. Older became friends with detective William J. Burns because of the San Francisco investigation but he was also friends with Clarence Darrow.

Richard H. Aishton.
Richard Aishton held the position of Assistant General Manager for the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad. In December 1914 he was chosen by President Wilson to fill a vacant seat on the Commission on Industrial Relations. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-26084.

John J. McNamara, Secretary-Treasurer of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers.
John "J.J." McNamara and his brother Jim were markedly different personalities. J.J. was by far the most accomplished and charismatic. He had risked his life as an iron worker and worked his way up the union hierarchy until he was elected secretary-treasurer at age 28. He then went to night school and earned a law degree from the Indiana School of Law. J.J. was also devoutly Catholic. Jim McNamara was nearly everything his older brother was not, “an anemic, chain-smoking, ne’er-do-well” who hated church, but “loved liquor and gambling, and spent most of his time with married women and prostitutes.” Geoffrey Cowan, The People v. Clarence Darrow 79 (1993).

Joseph Scott.
Joseph Scott, a member of the McNamara defense team, was involved in trying to convince the McNamara brothers to take a plea deal. Jim "J.B." McNamara initially refused to cooperate in a plea deal in which his brother J.J. would plead guilty to save Jim from the death penalty. Scott got the jail chaplain Father Edward Brady to talk to Jim and this appeared to help persuade him to take the plea deal. Photo from History of the Bench and Bar of Southern California by Willoughby Rodman (1909).

Frank P. Walsh.
The Commission on Industrial Relations was dominated by the head of the commission, Frank P. Walsh, who displayed an obvious pro-labor stance. He later became the general counsel for the Iron Workers Union, a position he held from 1918 until his death in 1939. Commission members, John R. Commons and Florence Jaffray Harriman, issued a dissenting report because they believed Walsh and the pro-labor members placed too much of the blame for industrial strife on employers and their recommendations for change were too radical. The commission's final report was not enthusiastically received and Congress was upset enough to cut off its funding. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-npcc-31779.

Ortie McManigle.
Ortie McManigle (sometimes spelled McManigal) was arrested with Jim McNamara on April 11, 1911 in Detroit. McManigal soon confessed to sabotaging and blowing up work sites as part of a nationwide dynamite sabotage campaign directed by J.J. McNamara on behalf of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers union.

Judge Walter Bordwell c. 1909.
Judge Bordwell presided over the McNamara trial and sentenced the McNamara brothers to prison after they agreed to plead guilty.

Eugene A. Clancy.
Eugene Clancy, the leader of the Structural Iron Workers' Union in San Francisco, was believed by the prosecution to be one of the labor leaders, along with Anton Johannsen and Olaf Tveitmoe, to be behind the bombing of the Los Angeles Times. Clancy was later convicted in Indiana and sentenced to six years in prison as part of the Dynamite conspiracy trial that stemmed from the investigation into the bombing of the Los Angeles Times. The trial, which began on October 1, 1912, was considered the largest criminal conspiracy trial in American history up to that time.

Oscar Lawler.
Oscar Lawler assisted the prosecution in the McNamara case and played a key role in the investigation of the national dynamite conspiracy perpetrated by the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers (IABSIW). Lawler had previously worked in the Taft administration and his influence helped get the federal government to intervene to safeguard evidence found in the union's headquarters in Indianapolis.

Jim McNamara's Suit-Case with Nitroglycerin stain.

Bomb-Making Tool Kit found with Jim McNamara and Ortie McManigal.
Part of the evidence against the J.J. McNamara and Ortie McManigal.

Dynamite Evidence Found at the Union Headquarters in Indianapolis.
The Los Angeles Times bombing led to an investigation of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers in Indianapolis.

Commission On Industrial Relations.
Weinstock; Lennon; Garretson; Walsh, Chairman; Commons; Ballard; Delano; Mrs. Harriman. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-hec-03566.

William J. Burns.
The most famous detective in the United States.

Basil Manly & President Taft.
Basil M. Manly was the Director of Research and Investigation for the Commission on Industrial Relations. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-28065.

Detective William J. Burns in Indianapolis.
The investigation into the Los Angeles Times bombing led to the investigation, indictment and conviction of many members of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers (IABSIW) in Indianapolis.

Rifle Found in the Dynamiters' Suit Case.
Part of the evidence against J.J. McNamara and Ortie McManigal.

John Worth Kern c. 1908.
John Worth Kern (1849 - 1917) and William N. Harding were the main defense attorneys in the Dynamite Conspiracy trial in Indiana. At the time, Kern was also a United States senator from Indiana. About 39 members of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Ironworkers were convicted for conspiracy to commit a crime against the United States, and of transporting, aiding, and abetting the transportation of dynamite and nitroglycerin in interstate commerce in passenger trains and cars between the several states of the United States. The evidence in this case was the direct result of the investigation into the Los Angeles Times Bombing and involved substantial investigations in Indianapolis. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-82815.

Commision on Industrial Relations.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, LC-DIG-hec-03371.

Clarence S. Darrow, Chief Counsel for the McNamara Brothers.
Portrait of Clarence Darrow from article about the case in McClure's Magazine February 1912.

Frank Morrison.
Frank Morrison was the secretary of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) from 1897 to 1935 and secretary-treasurer from 1936 to 1939. He had exclusive control over the McNamara Defense Fund. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-hec-14759.

G. Ray Horton.
During jury selection, Horton, a young assistant district attorney, rapidly questioned an elderly venireman and then claimed the man was hard of hearing and too weak to sit through a trial. Darrow got angry and told Horton "Old men are not the only garrulous ones" then Darrow accused the prosecution of trying to disqualify the venireman simply because he subscribed to the Los Angeles Record and the Socialist publication Appeal to Reason. Judge Bordwell overruled Darrow's objection. Geoffrey Cowan, The People v. Clarence Darrow: The Bribery Trial of America's Greatest Lawyer, 212 (1993). Photo from the Press Reference Library (Southwest Edition) Notables of the Southwest (1912).

A.B. Garretson.
Garretson was appointed to Commission on Industrial Relations by President Wilson as one of the representatives for labor. At the time he was president of the Order of Railway Conductors. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ggbain-02725.

Residence of General Harrison Gray Otis in Los Angeles.
Jim McNamara planted a bomb at Otis's residence but the bomb did not explode until it was later removed by the police.

The McNamaras Coming to Court to Plead Guilty.
James B. McNamara pled guilty on Friday, December 1, 1911 in the Los Angeles Superior Court to bombing the Los Angeles Times building. It was fourteen months to the day since the bombing that killed twenty employees. His brother John (J.J.) pled guilty to bombing the Llewellyn Iron works. James McNamara was sentenced to life in prison and J.J. McNamara was sentenced to fifteen years. Ortie McManigal is to the left.

Ortie McManigal's Own Story of the National Dynamite Plot.
Cover from Ortie McManigal's confession of the nationwide dynamite sabotage campaign alleged orchestrated by the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers union. Full-text available above.

Anton Johannsen.
Anton Johannsen was a powerful San Francisco labor leader. It was widely believed that Johannsen and Olaf Tveitmoe arranged for the bombing of the Los Angeles Times building.

Patrick Calhoun.
William Burns, the lead investigator into the Los Angeles Times bombing, gained fame during a previous investigation that uncovered massive political graft and corruption in San Francisco. The investigation led to the confession of Abraham Ruef, a city political boss, the conviction of Mayor Eugene Schmitz, and the indictment of Patrick Calhoun, president of the United Railroad. Calhoun was the grandson of South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun. Patrick Calhoun hired Earl Rogers to defend him. The defense devised a strategy to prod labor unions into striking against the street railway companies and then Calhoun would gain favor by breaking the strike.

Henry Gage, Bert Franklin and Lecompte Davis at Preliminary Hearing.
Henry Gage, a well respected defense attorney and former governor of California, was hired by Clarence Darrow to defend Bert Franklin against bribery charges. Later Franklin entered a plea deal with the prosecution and implicated Darrow in attempts to briber jurors. Davis served on the McNamara defense team.

Executive Board of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers 1907-08.

The Bridgemen's Magazine.
Cover from the official magazine of the International Association of Bridge, Structural, and Ornamental Iron Workers.

Executive Board of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers 1908-09.

Judge Walter Bordwell.
Photo from volume 45 of The American Monthly Review of Reviews (1912).

Los Angeles Mayor George Alexander.
George Alexander (1839 - 1923) was born in Glasgow, Scotland, and his family emigrated to the United States when he was 11 years old. In 1909 he ran in a recall election against Mayor Arthur C. Harper, and won. Alexander was running for re-election in the 1911 race. Job Harriman, a well known labor lawyer and leading socialist figure, had initially been hired by the McNamara brothers as defense counsel and he remained on the team after Clarence Darrow took over. Harriman was running for mayor during the preparation for the trial of the McNamara brothers. He surprised many when he won the mayoral primary in October 1911 on the Socialist ticket. But in November Darrow and just a few defense lawyers were engaged in plea negotiations that were so secretive that Darrow did not even tell his own clients and Harriman and his mayoral campaign were also not told. The prosecution gave the defense a deadline of Friday, December 1, 1911 to agree to a plea deal or face trial. They wanted the McNamara brothers to plead guilty before the mayoral election the following Tuesday knowing that it would greatly hurt Harriman's election chances. The McNamara brothers agreed to plead guilty and did so on December 1, 1911. News of the guilty pleas greatly upset labor and Harriman's socialist supporters. Before the news hit, the mayoral race was too close to call but because of the plea deal, Harriman ended up losing by twenty thousand votes to Alexander.

District Attorney John D. Fredericks.

Clarence S. Darrow.
Photo from volume 45 of The American Review of Reviews (1912).

McNamaras Quiver In Taking Sentences.
Headline in The San Francisco Call on December 6, 1911.

District Attorney Fredericks.
District Attorney Fredericks Who says the confessions were forced by the bribery investigation.

The McNamara brothers and Samuel Gompers.
The McNamara brothers and Samuel Gompers, taken before the confession, when, as Mr. Gompers says, he believed in their innocence.

Bert Franklin.
Bert Franklin, Detective of the defense charged with trying to bribe a venireman.

Lincoln J. Steffens and Clarence Darrow.
Lincoln J. Steffens and Attorney Clarence Darrow - The writer who attempted to mediate between capital and labor, and the attorney for the defense who suddenly decided to have his clients plead guilty.

Bomb found outside the home of Felix J. Zeehandelaar, Los Angeles, 1910-1919.
Photograph of a bomb found outside the home of Felix J. Zeehandelaar, Los Angeles, 1910-1919. The home-made bomb sits on a table at center. A timing device is visible at left, while stacks of dynamite can be seen at right. A wooden block and newspaper can be seen behind the device, which was found the same day that the bombing of the Los Angeles Times occurred. Image courtesy of The California Historical Society Collection, 1860-1960/The Digital Public Library of America.
http://digitallibrary
.usc.edu/cdm/ref/collection/
p15799coll65/
id/4403

Clarence Darrow. Labor's foremost defender in the courts.
From The American magazine. Vol. LXXII, no. 5 (Sept. 1911).

From Dusk to Dawn.
The McNamara case and Job Harriman's run for mayor influenced Frank Wolfe, a member of the McNamara defense team, to produce a movie released in September 1913. Titled “From Dusk to Dawn” Clarence Darrow has a prominent role playing an attorney who defends a union member charged with conspiracy. The film was a commercial success.

Clarence Darrow in the movie From Dusk to Dawn.

Frank Wolfe in the movie From Dusk to Dawn.

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