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Excerpts from Speeches       Proceedings and Debates       Hearings       Committee prints and reports

In December 1974 The New York Times published a shocking article by Seymour Hersh detailing "a massive, illegal domestic intelligence operation during the Nixon Administration." Hersh reported on a host of "illegal activities by members of the CIA, inside the United States, beginning in the nineteen-fifties, including break-ins, wiretapping and the surreptitious inspection of mail."[1]Seymour M. Hersh, "Huge C.I.A. Operation Reported in U.S. Against Antiwar Forces, Other Dissidents in Nixon Years," The New York Times (Dec. 22, 1974) at 1. In response to Hersh's article, as well as to growing allegations of abuse committed abroad by U.S. intelligence agencies, the Senate voted to establish the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. The mandate of the Committee was to investigate the activities of federal intelligence agencies, including the CIA, the FBI, the Defense Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency, going back to the 1930s. Senator Mondale played a key role in the Committee's investigations.

The Committee initially interviewed witnesses in private executive sessions and then conducted twenty-one days of public hearings between September and December 1975. By early 1976, the Committee had interviewed eight hundred witnesses and reviewed over 110,000 pages of classified documents.[2]Walter Mondale, The Good Fight (New York: Scribner) at 151. Senator Mondale was a relentless interrogator and had little patience with witnesses who had not questioned the legality of their actions. After questioning two former postmasters general, Mondale stated: "I must say that the testimony I have just heard from you ... scares me more than I expected. Not only have we found gross and unconscionable interference with the mail which threatens the civil liberties of every American, but we have the testimony from two former postmasters general that they do not think it is wrong, even today."[3]Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21: Mail Opening. 94th Cong., 1st sess., October 22, 1975 at 53-54. A contentious exchange with Attorney General Edward Levi during the hearings on the FBI encapsulates Senator Mondale's firm belief in congressional oversight and in the rule of law. Mr. Levi resisted the Committee's request to submit a list of illegal activities conducted by the FBI which had been compiled by Elliot Richardson, attorney general under President Nixon. Senator Mondale ended his interrogation by saying, "Well, I think that kind of arrogance is why we have trouble between the executive and legislative branch."[4]Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 94th Cong., 1st sess., December 11, 1975 at 332.

Throughout the hearings, Senator Mondale repeatedly argued the need for "scrupulous adherence to the law and the Constitution by the agencies of Government."[5]Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 94th Cong., 1st sess., November 19, 1975 at 63. He criticized the CIA's use of "plausible deniability"—the denial of blame in loose and informal chains of command where confirming responsibility for the action is nearly impossible—and stressed the need for accountability in all areas of intelligence: "I worry ... because there was this ... strategy ... of plausible denial, that ... might have encouraged actions that would not have occurred had those who were the real actors expected accountability. In other words, I think it is very easy to diminish in one's thinking moral and other considerations when you are quite sure you're not going to get caught.... I think human nature might, under those kinds of expectations, lead people to do things that they would never do if they were to be held accountable."[6]Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Testimony of Thomas A. Parrott, former Central Intelligence Agency Official. 94th Cong., 1st sess., July 10, 1975 at 10-11.

Lawrence Jacobs, Walter F. and Joan Mondale Chair for Political Studies at the University of Minnesota, summarized Mr. Mondale's role in investigating U.S. intelligence activities in his essay "Walter Mondale: In the Tradition of James Madison."

"Senator Mondale played a decisive role in balancing individual liberties and homeland security. In the aftermath of the Watergate crisis, an unparalleled bipartisan investigation of American domestic and international security services was conducted by a committee chaired by Senator Frank Church. Although widely known as the 'Church Committee,' Senator Mondale assumed operational leadership of the investigation—according to the Committee chief counsel Frederick A. O. Schwartz, Jr.—following Senator Church's decision to run for president.

The Committee's findings were staggering, making plain the need for vigilant scrutiny of government. In addition to revelations of sordid and ill-conceived efforts to assassinate foreign leaders, the Mondale-Church investigations documented F.B.I. plans to undermine Martin Luther King, Jr. and engage in wide-ranging inappropriate and illegal activities violating the Bill of Rights. Legislative intervention to check executive branch excess was precisely the kind of counterbalancing that James Madison identified as essential to preventing tyranny and injustice. Walter Mondale also sought a workable balance between America's security against foreign attack and the results of unchecked power uncovered by the Mondale-Church investigations. As Senator, and then as Vice President, Mr. Mondale worked both with America's national security services to facilitate intelligence-gathering and with constitutional experts to create a judicial process of review.

The resulting law, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978, became a cornerstone of American governance, recasting the issue of security versus civil liberties into a synthesis that advanced both. The FISA process continues to be an important rallying point for the bipartisan resistance to recent governmental policies on domestic surveillance."[7]Lawrence Jacobs, "Walter Mondale: In the Tradition of James Madison," unpublished essay written to accompany an exhibition in celebration of Walter Mondale held in the Riesenfeld Rare Books Research Center, University of Minnesota Law Library, 2008.

Excerpts from Senator Mondale's speeches and writings on intelligence: [Top]

"None of us can afford to be insensitive to the grave implications of unjustified and unlawful spying by the Government. It poses a very real danger to the personal freedoms which are the cornerstone of our democratic system." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (September 11, 1973) at 29146.


"America was based on the revolutionary concept that the people should decide what is right and what is wrong, what is acceptable and what is not.

That is what we meant by a free government, and our forefathers were convinced that it can exist only through the greatest tolerance of speech and opinion. They place their faith in the people to remain alert to encroachments on their liberty.

The founders of our country knew that the greatest danger to freedom comes from the efforts of government to suppress the opinions of its opponents. They set up a system which limited the powers of government, bound it in the constraints of the law, and prohibited it from infringing on the rights of people to free expression. And through the separation of power, the system of checks and balances, they tried to assure that the Executive would be accountable to the people through the Congress."

U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Intelligence Activities: Senate Resolution 21: Federal Bureau of Investigation. Volume 6. 94th Cong., 1st sess., November 18, 19, December 2, 3, 9, 10, and 11, 1975 at 62.


"The resort to clandestine instruments of manipulation, coercion, and interference in the affairs of other countries may have been essential to our security at one time. But over the years, it became increasingly marginal. Today we find it has damaged our credibility, tarnished our prestige and undermined our power in the world." 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (October 9, 1975) at 32871.

"As chairman of the Subcommittee on Domestic Intelligence of the Select Committee, I have spent the past few months immersed in the evidence of gross abuse of the rights of American citizens by the FBI and other domestic intelligence agencies. The Bureau's "neutralization" of Dr. Martin Luther King is a case in point. Between 1963 and his death in 1968, the FBI placed Dr. King under intensive physical and electronic surveillance, including in sixteen instances installing bugs in Dr. King's hotel rooms. The FBI decided to use the information it had obtained through this electronic surveillance to "dethrone" King, and to cultivate and promote a new leader of the civil rights movement. It used the information to attempt to block Dr. King's being awarded honorary college degrees. The Bureau attempted to block Dr. King's audience with the Pope and to discredit him with other churches and the clergy. It mailed a hotel "bug" tape to King and an enclosed blackmail letter." 94th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 122 (February 18, 1976) at 3533.

"The laws in the Constitution are at times inconvenient, and they were intended to be because they were intended to restrain the unlimited exercise of power by Government. As I read the Secretary of the Defense's [Donald Rumsfeld] letter, he seems to find it inconvenient to come up and report to a newly created committee charged with the oversight of intelligence operations. Sure, it is inconvenient, but in the face of the abuses we have seen, certainly we are warned that that 'inconvenience' argument is puny compared to the risks to American democracy and the need for accountability under the Constitution of the United States and the laws of this land."

U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Intelligence. Electronic Surveillance Within the United States for Foreign Intelligence Purposes: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Intelligence and the Rights of Americans. 94th Cong., 2nd sess., April 1, 1976 (in response to Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's letter to the committee) at 103-104.


"A president who is accountable to no one—not the Congress or the courts—is a president who will be tempted to interpret the law for his own convenience, to decide who is an enemy of the state, to violate constitutional protections of our liberties. A system of government cannot operate this way. That defines the imperial presidency, the rise of tyranny, that gave our founders nightmares.

There will always be threats to our national security, and there will always be someone who argues that shortcuts are necessary to keep us safe. But that is no argument to subvert the law. If you want to adapt to new circumstances or new threats, then you amend the law."

Walter Mondale, The Good Fight (New York: Scribner, 2010) at 155.

Selected U.S. Senate proceedings and debates on intelligence, 1966-1976: [Top]
    Intelligence Speeches & Publications Submitted


    Intelligence
    • Senator Mondale voices his support for Senator McCarthy's (D-MN) resolution to establish a Select Committee on Intelligence Operations; he expresses concern that the Central Intelligence Agency's interference in foreign elections will affect the United States' foreign policies: "How is such a desirable policy [a democratic government] affected in its execution by the fact that we are in some places using bribery to influence the outcome of elections? Will they not do as we do, not as we say?" 89th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 112 (May 25, 1966): 11477-11478.

    • In response to President Ford's statements concerning the role of the CIA in Chile, Senator Mondale introduces Senate Resolution 404, to establish a Select Committee on Intelligence Policy: "Clearly, what is required is a new special body, with membership from both Armed Services and Foreign Relations, as well as membership outside of those bodies, which can dig into the urgent issues of what our overseas intelligence operations are for, how they are managed, and how they can really serve the American people." The measure is referred to the Committee on Armed Services. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (September 17, 1974): 31362-31364.

    • Debate and passage of Senate Resolution 21 (introduced by Senator Pastore, D-RI), establishing the Select Committee to Study Government Intelligence Activities; The measure is passed and Senator Mondale is assigned to the committee. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (January 27, 1975): 1416-1434.

    • Senator Mondale discusses the report of the Rockefeller Commission on CIA activities: "[A]s laudable as some of the recommendations are, many of the others are either inadequate or ... contradict basic lessons provided by the Commission's own findings—particularly with respect to protecting our constitutional rights. In some cases, the recommendations are little more than pious requests for the President and the CIA to obey the law. In others, the recommendations would go far to legalize the very abuses the Commission deplores. Moreover, the recommendations systematically disregard the necessity of involving the Congress in defining the role and responsibilities of the Central Intelligence Agency." 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (June 26, 1975): 21038-21041.

    • Senator Church (D-ID) introduces Senate Resolution 218 for himself and the other members of the Select Committee to Study Government Intelligence Activities, extending the original end date and allocating additional funds. The measure is passed July 31. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (July 24, 1975): 24592-24594.

    • Senator Clark (D-IA) submits a speech given by Senator Mondale at Denison University, in which he addresses problems in the government's intelligence activities and suggests reforms. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (October 9, 1975): 32871-32874.

    • Senator Mondale does not support George Bush's nomination to be the Director of Central Intelligence due to his concern that Mr. Bush will be more focused on campaigning for an elective office rather than attending to the duties required of the Director of the CIA. 94th Cong., 2nd Sess., Congressional Record 122 (January 27, 1976): 1156-1173.

    • Senator Mondale voices his support of S. 2893, establishing a standing Senate Committee on Intelligence Activities (introduced in January by Senator Church, D-ID). He submits his statement before the Senate Government Operations Committee addressing the Ford administration's aguments against the bill: "I begin my discussion of the administration arguments against S. 2893 with the following premise: Intensive Congressional oversight and the development of statutory restrictions on the domestic intelligence agencies, indeed the whole intelligence community, are essential to the preservation of our democracy. I assume there will be minimal risks to the effectiveness of the intelligence agencies through more intensive oversight, but I firmly believe that the risk to democratic principles in the absence of such oversight clearly outweighs any risk to the national security." The bill is referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration. 94th Cong., 2nd Sess., Congressional Record 122 (February 18, 1976): 3532-3534.

    • Senator Mansfield (D-MT) introduces Senate Resolution 400 for himself and others, including Senator Mondale; the resolution establishes a Standing Committee of the Senate on Intelligence Activities. 94th Cong., 2nd Sess., Congressional Record 122 (March 1, 1976): 4754-4758.

    • Senator Cannon (D-NV) proposes Amendment No. 1643 to Senate Resolution 400, establishing a Standing Committee of the Senate on Intelligence Activities; the amendment consists of several compromises to the original Resolution. 94th Cong., 2nd Sess., Congressional Record 122 (May 12, 1976): 13678-13695.

    • Senator Mondale speaks in support of Senate Resolution 400, establishing a Standing Committee of the Senate on Intelligence Activities: "The Senate confronts today what can only be called a historic challenge: whether our unique system of constitutional checks and balances, the hallmark of American Government, will be applied to a crucial area of Government activity—the conduct of intelligence operations at home and abroad. This is a vital area: intelligence affects the basic security of the Nation. Equally important, as we found, it can affect our fundamental constitutional rights—the rights that make Americans unique among the peoples of the world. The question is whether the Senate will at last establish effective legislative oversight over the multibillion-dollar U.S. intelligence community." 94th Cong., 2nd Sess., Congressional Record 122 (May 13, 1976): 13973-13990. (Mondale at 13977)

    • Senator Mondale disagrees with an amendment to Senate Resolution 400, introduced by Senators Stennis (D-MS) and Tower (R-TX), which would severely limit the jurisdiction of the proposed Standing Committee on Intelligence Activities. He quotes Madison's Federalist Paper No. 51, underscoring the need for "auxiliary precautions" and ends his statement by saying, "Secrecy, yes. Unaccountability, no. That is why we simply must have full jurisdiction in this oversight committee." 94th Cong., 2nd Sess., Congressional Record 122 (May 17, 1976): 14152-14157. (Mondale at 14157)

    • Debate on Senate Resolution 400 and the Stennis-Tower Amendment; the amendment is rejected. A substitute amendment introduced by Senator Cannon (D-NV) is debated and agreed to. Senate Resolution 400, known as the "Cannon Compromise," is agreed to. The resolution establishes a permanent Select Committee on Intelligence "with exclusive legislative and annual or biannual authorization jurisdiction over the CIA and the Director of Central Intelligence, shared sequential jurisdiction over other national intelligence activities, including significant anticipated activities, and the right to disclose information over the objection of the President, given concurrence of the full Senate." 94th Cong., 2nd Sess., Congressional Record 122 (May 19, 1976): 14643-14679.


    Speeches & Publications Submitted
U.S. Senate hearings on intelligence in which Senator Mondale participated: [Top]

    Hearings of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence, commonly known as the "Church Committee" after its chairman Frank Church

  • Briefing by Clark Clifford, former White House Official, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities,94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of William Colby, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Lawrence Reed Houston, former General Counsel of the Central Intelligence Agency, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Robert Maheu, former Central Intelligence Agency Agent, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Tad Szulc, reporter, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Richard M. Bissell, former Deputy Director of Plans of the Central Intelligence Agency, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Samuel Halpern, Executive Assistant to William Harvey, Central Intelligence Agency, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of John Roselli, retired business person, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony William K. Harvey, former intelligence officer of the Central Intelligence Agency, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of General Edward G. Lansdale, Department of Defense, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of General Maxwell Taylor, former Chairman of Interagency, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Gordon Gray, former Special Assistant to President Eisenhower for National Security Affairs, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Dean Rusk, former Secretary of State, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Thomas A. Parrott, former Central Intelligence Agency Official, Before the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of William Atwood, former Special Advisor to the U.S. Delegation to the UN, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Robert McNamara, former Secretary of State, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Richard Helms, former Deputy Director of Plans of the Central Intelligence Agency, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Theodore C. Sorenson, Special Assistant to President Kennedy, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of David Atlee Phillips, retired Central Intelligence Agency Officer, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Testimony of Edward Kennedy, United States Senator and brother of President John F. Kennedy, Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Intelligence Activities, S. Res. 21, vol. 1: Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents: Hearings Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Intelligence Activities, S. Res. 21, vol. 2: Huston Plan: Hearings Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Intelligence Activities, S. Res. 21, vol. 3: Internal Revenue Service: Hearings Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Intelligence Activities, S. Res. 21, vol. 4: Mail Opening: Hearings Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Intelligence Activities, S. Res. 21, vol. 5: The National Security Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights: Hearings Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Intelligence Activities, S. Res. 21, vol. 6: Federal Bureau of Investigation: Hearings Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Intelligence Activities, S. Res. 21, vol. 7: Covert Action: Hearings Before the Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Other hearings

  • Oversight of U.S. Government Intelligence Operations: Hearings Before the Senate Comm. on Government Operations, 94th Cong. (1976).

  • Proposed Standing Comm. on Intelligence Activities: Hearings Before the Comm. on Rules and Administration, 94th Cong. (1976).

  • Electronic Surveillance Within the United States for Foreign Intelligence Purposes: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Intelligence and the Rights of Americans, 94th Cong. (1976).

Selected Senate committee prints and reports on intelligence: [Top]

    Committee Prints

  • Staff of Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong., Report on Political Abuse and the FBI (Comm. Print 1975).

  • Staff of Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong., Rules of Procedure (Comm. Print 1975).

  • Staff of Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, 94th Cong., Covert Action in Chile: 1963-1973 (Comm. Print 1975).

  • Staff of Select Comm. on Intelligence, 94th Cong., Rules of Procedure (Comm. Print 1976).

  • Committee Reports

  • Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, S. Rep. No. 94-465 (1975).

  • Senate Comm. on Governmental Affairs, Senate Committee on Intelligence Activities, S. Rep. No. 94-675 (1976).

  • Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military Intelligence, Book 1, S. Rep. No. 94-755, pt. 1 (1976).

  • Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, Book 2, S. Rep. No. 94-755, pt. 2 (1976).

  • Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, Book 3, S. Rep. No. 94-755, pt. 3 (1976).

  • Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Foreign and Military Intelligence, Book 4, S. Rep. No. 94-755, pt. 4 (1976).

  • Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Investigation of the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy: Performance of the Intelligence Agencies, Book 5, S. Rep. No. 94-755, pt. 5 (1976).

  • Select Comm. to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Supplementary Reports on Intelligence Activities, Book 6, S. Rep. No. 94-755, pt. 6 (1976).

  • Senate Comm. on Rules and Administration, Proposed Standing Committee on Intelligence Activities, S. Rep. No. 94-770 (1976).

  • Select Comm. on Intelligence, Foreign Surveillance Act of 1976: Report with Additional Views to Accompany S. 3197, S. Rep. No. 94-1161 (1976).

  • Congressional Research Service Reports

  • Richard F. Grimmett, Cong. Research Serv., 75-50 F, Reported Foreign and Domestic Covert Activities of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency: 1950-1974 (1975).

  • William N. Raiford, Cong. Research Serv., 75-76 F, Legislation Introduced Relative to the Activities of U.S. Intelligence Agencies: 1973-1974 (1975).

  • Frederick M. Kaiser, Cong. Research Serv., 76-54 G, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Status and Recommendations (1976).

  • William N. Raiford, Cong., Research Serv., Senate Oversight of Intelligence (1976).

  • William N. Raiford, Cong., Research Serv., 76-149 F, To Create a Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: A Legislative History of Senate Resolution 400 (1976).


Endnotes:[TOP]
  1. Seymour M. Hersh, "Huge C.I.A. Operation Reported in U.S. Against Antiwar Forces, Other Dissidents in Nixon Years," The New York Times (Dec. 22, 1974) at 1.
  2. Walter Mondale, The Good Fight (New York: Scribner) at 151.
  3. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21: Mail Opening. 94th Cong., 1st sess., October 22, 1975 at 53-54.
  4. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 94th Cong., 1st sess., December 11, 1975 at 332.
  5. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21: Federal Bureau of Investigation. 94th Cong., 1st sess., November 19, 1975 at 63.
  6. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Testimony of Thomas A. Parrott, former Central Intelligence Agency Official. 94th Cong., 1st sess., July 10, 1975 at 10-11.
  7. Lawrence Jacobs, "Walter Mondale: In the Tradition of James Madison," unpublished essay written to accompany an exhibition in celebration of Walter Mondale held in the Riesenfeld Rare Books Research Center, University of Minnesota Law Library, 2008.