Introduction
Photo Album
Committee Assignments
American Indian Rights
Children / Education
Civil Rights
Civil Rights / Fair Housing
Consumer Protection
Elderly / Aging
Environment / Conservation
Filibuster / Cloture
Foreign Relations
Government Accountability
Intelligence
Migrant Workers
Public Welfare
Public Welfare
Excerpts from Speeches       Proceedings and Debates       Hearings       Committee prints and reports

Public Welfare addresses Senator Mondale's initiatives in the following areas: legal services for the poor; poverty and hunger; work to create a Council of Social Advisers to the President; social services; affordable housing and urban development; the needs of rural areas; health care; and job programs. It encompasses much of the "take care" clause in the Constitution that Mr. Mondale discusses in The Good Fight.

Our founders understood that a decent society, a society that can endure and prosper, needs leaders who transcend the politics of the moment and pursue the nation's long-term aspirations. These leaders will take care of the Constitution, understanding that they are only custodians of an ideal-stewards with a debt to their forbearers and a duty to their heirs. They will take care of their fellow citizens-especially the poor and the disenfranchised-understanding that a society is stronger when everyone contributes. They will take care of our children, understanding that wise society invests in the things that help its next generation succeed. They will take care of politics itself, governing with honor and generosity rather than ideology and fear....They will remember that the Constitution enjoins them to promote the common welfare as well as the blessings of liberty.

Legal Services

As Minnesota Attorney General, Walter Mondale played a key role in rallying 23 state attorneys general to sign a brief in favor of Clarence Earl Gideon, an indigent defendant who argued that the lower courts had deprived him of his constitutional rights when they refused to provide him with an attorney. The following year-1963-the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that states have a constitutional obligation to provide counsel to indigent defendants in a criminal trial.

Senator Mondale continued his advocacy for legal services for the poor in the United States Senate. Early in his Senate career, he supported the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, and its inclusion of legal services: "The legal profession and the public are rapidly coming to the awareness that the protection of the law has often been effectively denied the poor. In many communities the provision of legal services to the poor .... promises to bring justice to people who have never known the law except as an oppressor." Throughout his career, he continued to advocate for legal services for the poor, insisting that without "elementary justice" and legal representation, "the right to certain constitutional rights is a mockery for millions of Americans who cannot afford to be represented before the courts of our land."

In 1969 Senator Mondale introduced the Legal Services for the Poor Act, as a separate title under the Economic Opportunity Act. The Legal Services Program established by the law became endangered by Senate action giving governors veto power over the operation of legal services in their state and by the Nixon administration's attempt to completely dismantle the program. In response, Senator Mondale introduced legislation to establish a National Legal Services Corporation as a politically independent entity: "While the legal services program has survived past attacks on its independence, its integrity, and its capacity to provide full legal representation to the poor, each challenge has drained the program's energy and diverted its resources. As long as the program remains vulnerable to political attack or manipulation, the damage will grow worse until it could be fatal. Our legislation is designed to insulate this vital program from political interference-and in so doing, to insure its integrity and independence."

In 1971 President Nixon vetoed a bill establishing the Legal Services Corporation. The Legal Services Corporation was finally established in 1974 with the passage of H.R. 7824. Senator Mondale supported the bill with some reluctance, as it fell short of the politically independent entity he had envisioned: "I deeply regret that only in this way have we been able to assure the continued operation of the legal services program. And I await the day when national leadership will once again view its principal goal not as protecting the vested interests of the few, but rather as promoting the legal rights of all Americans."

Poverty and Hunger

In 1968 and again in 1969, Senator Mondale introduced the Domestic Food Assistance Act. He also served on Senator McGovern's Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. Senator Mondale and other members of the committee gained a first-hand understanding of hunger and poverty by visiting impoverished areas of the country, gathering thousands of pages of testimony, and interviewing hundreds of witnesses at hearings. "The real cause of hunger and deprivation," observed Senator Mondale, "is the powerlessness of the poor, a powerlessness resulting from our desire to hold the poor in a guardian-ward relationship."

At times, our paternalism is benevolent. Often, it is abusive. But always it carries the self-seeking tone of wanting to do minor good works while preserving the power and the institutions of the dominant society. And in the end, those who are made dependent upon our continued interest and our voluntary sacrifices remain miserable and hungry.... It is the powerlessness of the poor which results in the hunger we are discussing today-not ignorance or lack of will. I have never yet met a hungry person who liked it that way. But unlike us, they cannot do anything about it. Until the poor have power-political power, legal power, and most of all purchasing power, they will stay poor and they will stay hungry.

In a contentious exchange with Casper Weinberger, the Secretary of Housing, Education, and Welfare, Senator Mondale questioned the department's eligibility standards for welfare. He produced figures showing that the administration's welfare regulations incentivized welfare dependency: "How can you consider it reasonable to define the term 'potential recipient' in such a way that those potentially on welfare must be poorer than those actually on welfare? ... It seems to me we are going the wrong way." His questions prompted the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to "reexamine key positions of its regulations that will govern a $2.5-billion program of social services."

Council of Social Advisers

In 1967 Senator Mondale introduced The Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act. The bill was "designed to give ... a clear and precise picture of how well we are doing in our efforts to provide a decent life and full opportunity for all Americans." He believed the government needed "new tools to assess our efforts and progress in the area of social reform." One of the "tools" the bill sought to establish was a Council of Social Advisers (based on the Council of Economic Advisers) that would gather data on the performance of social programs and would present its findings to the President. Senator Mondale believed strongly that the Council would be instrumental in helping the President determine sound public policy. The 1967 bill failed to gain Congressional support. He introduced similar legislation in 1969, 1971, and 1973. Despite strong support from experts, the news media, and the public at large, the legislation was never passed.

Affordable Housing and Urban Development

Senator Mondale applauded the creation of the Urban Coalition and its "voice that is intent on shaping governmental programs for the poor." He introduced legislation that focused on neighborhood revitalization in urban areas and gave communities more control to improve their neighborhoods. Senator Mondale introduced the Homeowner's Loan Act in 1974 and 1975 to help homeowners who faced the possibility of foreclosure, and he added amendments to the Emergency Housing Act of 1975 that were designed to achieve the same goal. He was angered by President Ford's veto of the Emergency Housing bill: "I only wish the President had read my mail on this subject before he decided to veto this bill. I wish he would have read the letters from hundreds of Minnesotans who are literally terrified at the prospect of foreclosure. I wish Mr. Ford would have listened to their calls for help." In response to the veto, Senator Mondale introduced the Emergency Mortgage Relief Act of 1975. A similar bill (the Emergency Homeowner's Relief Act) passed that helped delay mortgage payments for the unemployed, but Senator Mondale was disappointed by the failure of the Department of Housing and Urban Development to implement it: "Once again, the Ford administration has shown its unwillingness to help the victims of unemployment. Once again it has shown a lack of compassion for those hurt most by this Nation's economic distress."

Rural America

Senator Mondale introduced legislation to improve social and medical programs in rural areas and to continue rail service to rural communities. In 1970 and 1971 he introduced the Community Medicine Act, improving the quality and availability of medical care in rural communities lacking adequate medical services. When President Nixon's proposed budget for 1974 cut community health programs, including the Northlands Regional Medical Program in Minnesota, Senator Mondale decried the President's actions as "yet another example of the administration's lawless disregard for the constitutional responsibilities of the Congress."

He argued that the abandonment of rural railroads would be "the beginning of a disastrous process that could eventually disrupt the rural economy, kill many communities and cause chaos in the national transportation complex." When he introduced the Rural Rail Preservation Act of 1974 he criticized the federal government for "hastening the demise of America's rural transportation system" and he argued that "we ought to carefully evaluate the ... impact of abandonments on employment and business opportunities for rural community residents."

Health Care

In defending Medicaid, Senator Mondale stated that "high quality comprehensive health services should be the right of all Americans, not the privilege alone of those with the ability to pay for them." He supported a bill introduced by Senator Williams (D-NJ), nicknamed "Preventicare," providing for health screening to anyone over the age of 50 and he introduced and sponsored legislation that made health care more available to rural communities. In addition, in 1972 he introduced S. 3046, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Act of 1972, providing for more research, development, training, and public education in those fields. When the Nixon administration proposed reducing funds for medical research, Senator Mondale responded: "It seems incredible to me... that a nation willing to expend billions of dollars on defense procurement and supersonic transports lacks the will to support desperately needed research on cancer, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, or heart, respiratory, and neurological disease. It seems equally incredible that we, as a nation, lack the resources to invest in the well-being of our citizens through supporting the educational development of every person capable of becoming a member of the health profession."

Job Programs

Senator Mondale was a strong and vocal advocate of the Job Corps, VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America), vocational rehabilitation, and worker safety. He submitted numerous articles and letters supporting the Job Corps. When President Nixon announced his decision to "hastily close" half of the Job Corps centers, Senator Mondale responded with legislation that deferred the closing of any Job Corps center until Congress had the opportunity to review the program.

He was a firm supporter of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act, arguing that it was "one of the most important, carefully developed, and humane measures that has been before the Senate since I came here almost 7 years ago.... We can never measure adequately what successful rehabilitation can mean in personal terms to the handicapped and their families. We can only imagine the great pride and sense of security which developed when a handicapped person knows that he is self- sufficient." When the Senate failed to override the President's veto, Senator Mondale called it "one of the most disappointing votes I have observed in the Senate in a long time."

Senator Mondale was one of four senators to introduce the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1969. While he recognized the controversial nature of the legislation, he stressed the need to pass it due to the fact that "it is estimated that 55 workers die every day because of the failure to have adequate occupational health and safety legislation; that 14,000 Americans lose their lives every year because of the failure to have the kind of legislation we should take up today; and that 2.5 million workers suffer serious and permanent disability because of the failure to have this kind of legislation." President Nixon signed the bill into law on December 29, 1970.

Excerpts from Senator Mondale's speeches on public welfare: [Top]

Senators Walter Mondale of Minnesota and Alan Cranston of California at the Manpower and Poverty Hearing; credit: Minnesota Historical Society

"The greatest promise of America has always been the unqualified assurance of equal opportunity for all people regardless of their background or circumstances. We have made it a fundamental principle that every American be afforded the chance to build a full life for himself and his family.

Today in America there are a wide range of programs and projects to guarantee that no one is denied this chance because of race, because of a lack of education, or because of the poverty of his birth.

But today opportunity is closed to many of our fellow Americans because of the economic decline of the area in which they live. In such distressed areas, which spread throughout the country, young people leave school early to help their families and thus rob themselves of the skills and knowledge needed for a full and rich life. These same young people leave the area entirely, stripping it of the youth and vigor necessary to fight its economic problems. These circumstances and others lead to blocked progress and further decline.

We simply cannot afford to waste our human and natural resources. Loss of economic power stunts national growth and inhibits our position as the leading nation in the world community.

Most of all, we cannot sit contentedly by and allow millions of Americans to be foreclosed from the fulfillment of hope that the rest of us share. This would deny the American promise I spoke of earlier-the unqualified assurance of equal opportunity for all." U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking and Currency. Public Works and Economic Development: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Production and Stabilization. Titles II and IV of S. 1648. 89th Cong., 1st sess., May 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1965 at 93.


"Losing sight of people, even while trying to improve their situation, will cause the antipoverty effort to fail more certainly than anything else. The human being is the target of our effort. We must not forget that individual men, women, and children, living with little hope for a better tomorrow, are the only reason for the Economic Opportunity Act." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (September 11, 1967) at 25038.



Left to right: Minnesota Farmers' Union president Ed Christianson, Senator Walter Mondale and Dr. Blue Carstenson of the National Farmers' Union confer during a hearing before the Senate Banking and Currency Subcommittee on Housing; credit: Minnesota Historical Society

 

"How many Americans suffer in the squalor of inadequate housing? How many children do not receive educations commensurate with their abilities? To how many citizens is equality of justice denied? How many convicts in our penal institutions are barred from rehabilitation that would allow them the opportunity to reenter the mainstream of life? How many physically handicapped and mentally retarded are unable to get training to achieve their potential? How many individual Americans are denied adequate health care? How many are breathing polluted air? These are some of the possible indicators that might be considered in the social accounting." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (February 6, 1967) at 2654.


"Many are the paradoxes in this country. But to me none is more appalling, or less forgivable, than the paradox of hungry poor in this land of plenty.

This Nation of voluntary dieters has thousands condemned to forced fasting every day;

This Nation of food fads has thousands sick for lack of protein and vitamins they cannot afford;

This Nation that spends billions to keep food off the market has perhaps 10 million people whom the choice is beans and biscuits, or no food at all." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (May 16, 1968) at 13671.


"I believe that the season for stumbling is over. I fear, as many others do, the consequences of continued legislation enacted on hunch and intuition. I believe we must begin now to develop prudent and practical programs designed to enhance the opportunities of all Americans for personal fulfillment, and institutions capable of answering positively when Congress asks which program works best to achieve a given goal." U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Full Opportunity Act: Hearings Before the Special Subcommittee on Evaluation and Planning of Social Programs. 91st Cong., 1st sess., July 7, 1969.



Senator Walter Mondale confers with Beverly Goldfine and Kathryn Watters of Duluth during their testimony before the Senate Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs hearings on September 14, 1971; credit: Minnesota Historical Society

 

"It is indeed ironic that while some men are mobile enough to travel to the moon others lack the mobility to travel out of their ghetto. That we know more about extraterrestrial mobility than intrasocietal mobility is today all too evident and unfortunate. We can no longer afford-in any manner-the luxury of such relative ignorance. To say 'I don't know' is not a satisfactory response to the social problems which now confront us. While knowledge is not a sufficient condition for problem solving, it is a necessary condition. We need both the desire and the competence to solve these problems associated with equal opportunity. We cannot realize our ideal of equal opportunity unless we have an open society-a society which affords and stimulates rather than denies and frustrates social mobility." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (February 25, 1969) at 4461.


"High quality comprehensive health services should be the right of all Americans, not the privilege alone of those with the ability to pay for them." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (October 8, 1968) at 30066..



"The price of equal justice is adequate legal counsel, and the cost of adequate legal counsel, for many Americans, is prohibitive." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (August 11, 1969) at 23312.


L[egal] S[ervice] P[rogram] lawyers are the shock troops of the war on poverty, fighting at the cutting edge of social change. LSP lawyers have an opportunity unique among their colleagues to help the poor escape the treadmill of poverty. At the same time, they can enrich and influence the rule of law through development of new principles and practices reflecting the special needs of the poor." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 4, 1969) at 5125.


"While legal services has survived past attacks on its independence and integrity, each challenge has drained its energy and resources. As long as the program remains vulnerable to political attack or manipulation, this damage will grow worse until it could be fatal.

No attorney can meet his professional responsibilities if there are outside restraints on cases or issues he can raise. No large corporation would tolerate such outside interference. The poor should not have to tolerate it.

If legal service lawyers are not free from all political pressures, if they cannot represent their clients without interference from vested interests, then legal services for the poor is a sham." U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971 (Legal Services Program): Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., May 11, 1971.

If legal service lawyers are not free from all political pressures, if they cannot represent their clients without interference from vested interests, then legal services for the poor is a sham." U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971 (Legal Services Program): Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., May 11, 1971.


"Last night in an action which I thought was unbelievable, the Senate passed a bill which would prohibit legal services attorneys from bringing a suit under the Social Security Act, which would mean they could not participate in any of the welfare fields at all. No matter how illegal, no matter how outrageous the violation, they cannot sue on behalf of poor people....

I would like to have some who voted for that provision go out and tell those poor people about our deep commitment here to law and order and to the Constitution-after we said, in effect, that the courthouse door is slammed shut, bolted, and nailed down as far as their rights are concerned. They better find a rich friend." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (October 6, 1972) at 34269.

Selected U.S. Senate proceedings and debates on public welfare: [Top]
    Social Programs Legal Services Affordable Housing and Urban Development
    Job Programs Rural America Poverty and Hunger
    General Social Service Health Care Council of Social Advisers
    Speeches & Publications Submitted


    Social Programs
    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 2528, the Social Services Amendments of 1973: "This legislation represents an impressive, hopeful, and thoroughly bipartisan effort—on the part of members of the Senate, State, and local government, and interested private groups—to rescue the social services program from regressive regulations scheduled to go into effect next November 1." The bill is referred to the Committee on Finance. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (October 3, 1973): 32665-32673.

    • Senator Mondale submits a paper by William Gorham, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare entitled "Sharpening the Knife that Cuts the Public Pie." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (December 5, 1967): 35004-35010.

    • The Senate debates the Social Security Amendments of 1967 Conference Report; Senator Mondale expresses his disappointment in the conference report: "The report is a sorry response to the increasing needs of the elderly, the disabled, the blind, and the poor. Many of its provisions are punitive and repressive." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (December 14, 1967): 36781-36824. (Mondale at 36813)

    • Representative Yates (D-IL) urges the House to pass the Senate's version of the Civil Rights Bill: "[I]t is already apparent from the speeches that have taken place this morning that hard lines are being drawn. Some members have pointed to the looting and the burning to declare that they will not be intimidated or blackmailed by such actions and that they will vote against the civil rights bill which will be considered this week. All of us oppose the criminal lawlessness that scarred our country during the past few days. It is vicious and destructive. It is the rule of anarchy, rather than the rule of law and order and it cannot be condoned. Nevertheless, it must be apparent that the type of approach advocated by such opponents of the bill plays into the hands of the rebels, the cynics, the rioters, and the looters, for they have been pounding their communities that change will not be made through the lawful processes of government. If the attitude of such members is to prevail, what shall we tell the law-abiding citizens who have waited so long and so patiently for the changes which they have been led to expect would be made by the Congress—changes which will give them a share in the equal justice which is their American birthright." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (April 8, 1968): 9173-9174.

    • Senator Mondale replaces Senator Robert Kennedy (D-NY) on the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare; he resigns from the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (June 25, 1968): 18531.

    • Senator Mondale announces the formation of the Senate Subcommittee on Social Program Planning and Evaluation, providing for ongoing study of the government's social policies and programs. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (May 20, 1969): 13033-13034.

    • Senator Mondale criticizes new regulations proposed by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: "These new proposals will do nothing less than cripple thousands of vital human service programs across the country." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (February 26, 1973): 5364-5379.

    • Senator Mansfield (D-MT) submits Senator Mondale's remarks on behalf of the Democratic leadership regarding President Nixon's radio address on human resources; Senator Mondale is critical of the President's budget cuts to programs in education, decent housing, employment, health, the elderly, the poor, and the family farmer. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (March 6, 1973): 6533-6534.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 1220, limiting the authority of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to impose restrictions on federal funds for social services: "I am introducing legislation to preserve key aspects of the Federal social services program from 'impoundment by red tape.'... Our bill would preserve the five most essential components of the existing program." The bill is referred to the Committee on Finance. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (March 14, 1973): 7744-7749.

    • Senator Mondale discusses new regulations of social services adopted by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; he submits several witness testimonies from the hearings. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (May 21, 1973): 16251-16261.

    • Senator Nelson (D-WI) submits Senator Mondale's interview in The New Yorker in which he discusses a range of public welfare issues. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (May 22, 1973): 16416-16420.

    • Discussion of H.R. 3153 (introduced in January by Rep. Mill, D-AK), the Welfare Technical Amendments of 1973; Senator Mondale is pleased that the bill "contains provisions that would reverse the destructive social services regulations put into effect by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare last November 1," and that the committee reported bill contains the "fundamental objectives" of S. 2528, the bill he introduced on October 3. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (November 28, 1973): 38376-38404.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 3227, the Model Criminal Justice Reform Act of 1974: "The aim of this legislation is to establish model and experimental programs in more than six states to determine the effect of full-scale and comprehensive reform of the criminal justice system on the crime rate in those States. The program is, of course, completely voluntary and no state will be affected by this legislation if it does not choose to enter the program." The bill is referred to the Committee on Judiciary. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (March 22, 1974): 7849-7856.


    Legal Services
    • Senator Mondale speaks in support for legal services to the poor: "The legal profession and the public are rapidly coming to the awareness that the protection of the law has often been effectively denied the poor. In many communities the provision of legal services to the poor are ... planned as part of community antipoverty campaigns. Through these services the poor can learn of their rights and of ways the law can protect them.... These services, run in cooperation with local bar groups, promise to bring justice to people who have never known the law except as an oppressor." 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (February 17, 1965): 2823-2824.

    • Senator Mondale speaks in support of the Legal Services Program: "To the poor, legal service programs promise hope—the hope of escaping some of the daily tragedies of their lives. The efforts of legal services lawyers to prevent evictions, to deal with consumer frauds, to secure welfare payments for eligible clients mean the basics of life to the poor—housing, income, a chance to live in dignity and peace. Through dedicated effort and hard work, legal services attorneys give the poor the hope that the American way of life and the accompanying rule of law is responsive to their needs. The poor now recognize the law as something not to fear, but to trust—not as someone or something which will deprive them of their property or liberty, but as something and someone who is concerned about their problems and will help settle their grievances." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (February 25, 1969): 4451-4452

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 1291, the Legal Services for the Poor Act of 1969, establishing the Legal Services Program as a separate title under the Economic Opportunity Act: "The Legal Services Program—LSP—means many things to many people. To the poor, it means a chance to enjoy equal justice under law, so often denied them because of their inability to pay for services, or because law school training leaves lawyers ill-equipped to deal with the issues that plague their lives. The work of LSP lawyers in forestalling eviction, dealing with consumer frauds, seeing to it that welfare payments are received, not only helps the poor avert tragedies that otherwise might overcome them, but also helps poor people meet some of their most critical needs—for housing, for income, for nutrition, for personal security, and for social justice. To lawyers, legal services offers a chance to respond to that ancient biblical injunction, 'Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy'-Proverbs 31:9. LSP lawyers are the shock troops of the war on poverty, fighting at the cutting edge of social change. LSP lawyers have an opportunity unique among their colleagues to help the poor escape the treadmill of poverty. At the same time, they can enrich and influence the rule of law through development of new principles and practices reflecting the special needs of the poor." The bill is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 4, 1969): 5125-5129.

    • Senator Mondale submits an amendment to S. 1809, a bill to improve and extend the authorizing legislation for the Office of Economic Opportunity; the amendment proposes to almost double the authorized appropriations for the Legal Services Program: "For many people, legal services has made the difference between hope and despair; it has meant more than mere advice on legal matters; it has been the only authoritative, sympathetic, and trustworthy outlet available, the only symbol of hope in the culture of poverty. Although it is making an important contribution, legal services is not receiving adequate funds." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (August 11, 1969): 23312-23313.

    • Senator Mondale expresses concern that the Legal Services Program "is in serious danger as a result of recent Senate action which would increase the powers of Governors to control the operation of this program." He is proud of the strong support for the Legal Services Program from the Hennepin County Bar Association. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (November 6, 1969): 33369.

    • Senator Mondale submits five amendments to S. 1809, a bill to improve and extend the authorizing legislation for the Office of Economic Opportunity: "These amendments are designed to eliminate the Governor's veto over legal services programs, to modify the criminal representation provisions in the present act, to reduce the local share of funding which must be provided through each legal services program, to increase the maximum salary limitations for staff attorneys, and to prevent delegation of the Office of Economic Opportunity's legal services to any other existing federal agency." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (September 9, 1969): 24780-24782.

    • Senator Mondale helps to explain the Conference Report for S. 3016, the Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1969; the Conference Report is agreed to. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (December 20, 1969): 40400-40413. (Mondale at 40402)

    • Senator Mondale argues in support of the Legal Services Program: "I would very much hope that it [Legal Services Program] might be continued. I am very fearful that if it is not, a deep and pervasive schism will result because this is one program in which the poor felt that they had the same rights as other Americans. It is a conservative program which provides for the due rights of appeals and the opportunities which the rest of American citizens enjoy." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (October 14, 1970): 36818-36824. (Mondale at 36824)

    • Discussion of Frank Carlucci's nomination to head the Office of Economic Opportunity; Senator Mondale intends to vote for Mr. Calucci's confirmation, but expresses concern that Mr. Calucci would not say he would override Governor Reagan's veto of the California legal services program. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (December 31, 1970): 44457-44478. (Mondale at 44476)

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 1305, establishing a National Legal Services Corporation: "While the legal services program has survived past attacks on its independence, its integrity, and its capacity to provide full legal representation to the poor, each challenge has drained the program's energy and diverted its resources. As long as the program remains vulnerable to political attack or manipulation, the damage will grow worse until it could be fatal. Our legislation is designed to insulate this vital program from political interference—and in so doing, to insure its integrity and independence." The bill is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (March 19, 1971): 7156-7162.

    • Debate on S. 2007, providing for the continuation of programs such as legal services, child care, school busing, and community action programs authorized under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (September 8, 1971): 30968-31048.

    • Debate on S. 2007, the Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971; focus is on the Legal Services Corporation. S. 2007 is passed. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (September 9, 1971): 31230-31263.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article by Senator Pearson (R-KS) on the history of the Legal Services Program: "His excellent article is a definitive statement on the history of a program which has done so much to insure adequate and fair representation for the indigent in the courts of America." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (October 12, 1971): 35706-35709.

    • Senator Mondale expresses support for the conference report of S. 2007, the Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971: "I am delighted to support its provisions strengthening and improving OEO [Office of Economic Opportunity] programs—including neighborhood health centers, emergency food and medical services, community action programs, alcoholic and drug treatment, family planning, older workers programs, migrant assistance, neighborhood youth corps and community economic development. I am particularly proud that this report incorporates the basic provisions of two bills I had the privilege to sponsor, with bipartisan support—S. 1512, the Comprehensive Child Development Act of 1971, and S. 1305, the National Legal Services Corporation Act." The conference report is agreed to. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (December 2, 1971): 44113-44158. (Mondale at 44120 and 44142)

    • President Nixon's veto of S. 2007. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (December 10, 1971): 46057-46059.

    • Senator Mondale reacts to the President's veto: "In my view, this was a totally indefensible action, and the President's veto message is among the most irresponsible statements which I have encountered in 15 years of public life.... The legal services program has been one of the most successful of all the OEO programs. It is one of the least expensive. But it is a serious trouble for just that reason, because whenever the legal services program has brought a lawsuit asserting the fundamental legal right of the poor, enormous and powerful political and commercial forces have sought to cut off funds, to jeopardize and corrupt the program, and thus to make a mockery out of our system of law and justice. That is why we proposed the establishment of an independent Legal Services Corporation.... I hope we will override the veto." The Senate fails to override the veto. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (December 10, 1971): 46198-46222. (Mondale at 46201)

    • Senator Mondale submits an article from the Minneapolis Star urging the Senate to pass legislation creating a Legal Services Corporation. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (April 19, 1972): 13412.

    • Consideration of S. 3010, the Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1972; the Senate debates keeping the Legal Services Program with the Office of Economic Opportunity or creating a Legal Services Corporation. Senator Mondale argues: "What we are seeking to do with this National Legal Services Corporation is to deal with the pervasive criticism that these lawyers, in the pursuit of these ethical obligations, have been placed under heavy political pressure to compromise what the rules of ethics require. The National Legal Services Corporation is designed to make certain that the integrity of the attorney-client relationship shall be maintained." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (June 26, 1972): 22345-22359. (Mondale at 22347)

    • Further consideration of S. 3010, the Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1972; Senator Mondale continues to argue for the creation of a Legal Services Corporation to replace the Legal Services Program within the Office of Economic Opportunity. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (June 29, 1972): 23229-23244. (Mondale at 23234)

    • Senator Mondale speaks in support of an amendment he and Senators Cranston (D-CA) and Javits (R-NY) introduced to H.R. 1, the Social Security Amendments of 1972; the amendment would nullify two sections of H.R. 1 that would . jeopardize the integrity and independence of the Legal Services Program. H.R. 1 is passed. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (October 5, 1972): 33972-33980. (Mondale at 33977)

    • Senator Mondale is upset by the Senate's passage of H.R. 1: "Last night in an action which I thought was unbelievable, the Senate passed a bill which would prohibit legal services attorneys from bringing a suit under the Social Security Act, which would mean they could not participate in any of the welfare fields at all. No matter how illegal, no matter how outrageous the violation, they cannot sue on behalf of poor people.... I would like to have some who voted for that provision go out and tell those poor people about our deep commitment here to law and order and to the Constitution—after we said, in effect, that the courthouse door is slammed shut, bolted, and nailed down as far as their rights are concerned. They better find a rich friend." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (October 6, 1972): 34269.

    • Senator Mondale submits an amendment to S. 706, the Extension for Authorization for Programs Under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, creating a National Legal Services Corporation. The Corporation is "designed to assure that legal representation for the poor will be independent and free of politics, and also responsive to the communities it must serve." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (February 1, 1973): 3000-3008.

    • Senator Mondale cosponsors Senate Concurrent Resolution 12 ... expressing the sense of the Congress that the President continue OEO operations. He accuses the administration of "disregard of Congressional intent and a blatant example of their willingness to act illegally to foster their own policy priorities." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (February 26, 1973): 5307-5308.

    • Discussion of S. 1423, authorizing employer contributions to jointly administered labor-management trust funds to defray costs of legal services. The bill passes the Senate. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (May 16, 1973): 16007-16016. (Mondale at 16015)

    • Senator Mondale dismisses the House-passed Legal Services Corporation bill as "a hollow shell of what a truly independent and vibrant Legal Services Program must be." He lists and explains the goals towards which Congress should work to insure a viable and independent Legal Services Program. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (July 24, 1973): 25647-25651.

    • Senator Mondale supports, with some reservation, S. 2686, creating a Legal Services Corporation; he is concerned that the President is given complete discretion in appointing the Legal Services Board of Directors, but recognizes the need for compromise in order for the bill to pass. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (December 10, 1973): 40458-40473.

    • Senator Mondale attempts to bring forth a vote on the Legal Services Corporation Act: "I would hope either that something might occur so that we might act, or that, if we have what I call a filibuster by amendment, we might invoke cloture...." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (December 11, 1973): 40760-40768.

    • A vote for cloture (to end debate on a bill) on S. 2686, the Legal Services Corporation Act, fails. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (December 13, 1973): 41458-41464.

    • Discussion of S. 2686, the Legal Services Corporation Act; Senator Mondale states: "One of the things that perplexes me about the opposition to this bill is that what we are seeking to establish and maintain here is, it seems to me, elementary justice. All that we seek to assure by this measure is that the poor—those unable to afford the opportunity to have a lawyer represent them in legal proceedings—should have the right to do so in the courts and the tribunals of the land. We do so in the face of a clear record that, absent such a program, the right to certain constitutional rights is a mockery for millions of Americans who cannot afford to be represented before the courts of our land." The cloture motion passes. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (January 30, 1974): 1360-1404. (Mondale at 1365)

    • Continued debate on S. 2686, the Legal Services Corporation Act, and proposed amendments; Senator Mondale argues against Senator Brock's (R-TN) amendment, claiming it would "undermine if not destroy the whole concept of the Legal Services Corporation.... If the pending amendment is agreed to, the whole purpose of having an independent Legal Services Corporation is destroyed. These lawyers would once again become wholly subject to the political pressures of the incumbent political power, which would frustrate the whole reason for this provision." Numerous amendments are rejected. The bill is passed as H.R. 7824. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (January 31, 1974): 1620-1723. (Mondale at 1623, 1682, 1688, 1704)

    • Consideration and passage of H.R. 7824 (in lieu of S. 2686), establishing a Legal Services Corporation; Senator Mondale gives a brief history of the legislation for legal services and the Nixon administration's vetoes of the legislation, despite compromises of those supporting the program. Senator Mondale remarks on H.R. 7824: "I am confident that under this legislation, legal services offices will be able to provide high-quality legal assistance, including assistance of a specialized nature. I am also confident that background research work in specialized areas and a variety of technical assistance and training functions will continue to be undertaken by the corporation. These functions are essential to continued effective performance by legal services attorneys. Yet the limitations on the authority to provide these functions in the university-based backup centers now in existence will take its toll. I deeply regret that only in this way have we been able to assure the continued operation of the legal services program. And I await the day when national leadership will once again view its principal goal not as protecting the vested interests of the few, but rather as promoting the legal rights of all Americans." The bill becomes Public Law 93-355. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (July 18, 1974): 24014-24060. (Mondale at 24028)


    Affordable Housing and Urban Development
    • Senator Mondale praises the work of Urban America, a private group assisting cities in planning for the future, and announces a new publication the group will publish called City90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (June 21, 1967): 16633-16635.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 2124, the Home Purchase Assistance Act, increasing home purchasing opportunities for low- and moderate-income families, and S. 2125, assisting non-profit sponsors of low- and moderate-income housing; he gives a detailed history of the Federal Housing Administration and describes current programs the Administration is directing. Both bills are referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (July 17, 1967): 18927-18932.

    • Senator Mondale discusses the metropolitan development supplementary grant program, a program to assist urban areas with long term planning: "I would like to review the needs that led up to that legislation [creating the program] and make a plea that we provide funds for this program. We must meet the problems of growth adequately and intelligently." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (August 2, 1967): 20941-20943.

    • Senator Mondale supports President Johnson's plan to involve private enterprises in the work of public housing: "It is evidence of the initiative of this administration in its determination to deal with urban blight. It is also an expression of the positive spirit in which we must respond to the plight of the urban poor." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (August 22, 1967): 23541.

    • Senator Tydings (D-MD) submits a statement by Senator Mondale supporting their bill, S. 2343, to revitalize public housing. The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (August 24, 1967): 23846-23855. (Mondale at 23850)

    • Senator Mondale shares the news that the American Life Insurance Association has pledged $1 billion to improve housing and finance job-creating activities in urban areas: "This is a new step that should be heralded by those who recognize the necessity for involving private enterprise in the job of rebuilding our core cities." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (September 13, 1967): 25407.

    • Senator Mondale applauds the creation of the Urban Coalition: "Here, for the first time, we have an effective voice representing the first political philosophies in geographical regions: here we have a voice that is intent on shaping governmental programs for the poor." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (September 25, 1967): 26646-26650.

    • Senator Mondale defends the Federal Housing Administration against accusations that it is not implementing programs for lower income families: "The FHA and the Administration have made vast improvements in the past year to change the Agency into a responsive, dynamic tool for urban development." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (October 27, 1967): 30351-30353.

    • Senator Mondale speaks in favor of the Office of Economic Opportunity's Housing Development Corporation: "OEO-sponsored Housing Development Corporations have replaced the fragmented approach imposed by disjointed pieces of housing legislation with a comprehensive outlook, based on the total needs of the family, not only for brick and mortar, but for social services as well." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (December 15, 1967): 37066-37068.

    • Senator Sparkman (D-AL) introduces S. 3029, the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968; Senator Mondale voices support for the bill and highlights the need for private industry involvement in affordable housing and rent supplements for low- and moderate-income families. The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (February 26, 1968): 4074-4083. (Mondale at 4083)

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 3128, S. 3129, S. 3130, S. 3131, four bills designed to make existing housing programs more responsive to local needs: "I feel that much of our urban legislation has been drafted in a restrictive form in the past. This should not be the case. Legislation is needed to make Federal aid programs more flexible and more readily available to help communities meet emergency situations. These four bills are a start in remolding our present programs." All four bills are referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (March 11, 1968): 5931-5933.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 3255, focusing on neighborhood revitalization in urban areas and giving communities more control to improve their neighborhoods. The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (March 28, 1968): 8080-8081.

    • Senator Mondale commends the establishment of the Urban Institute: "The establishment of an urban institute is an impressive contribution in our present efforts to revitalize American cities. Incorporated as a private nonprofit corporation, the institute will be in a unique position. It will not be constrained by Government policies but at the same time it can enjoy a close working relationship with Government agencies. From that posture the institute can undertake studies to determine which programs are more durable and which programs will perform the greatest good for the greatest number." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (May 1, 1968): 11167.

    • Senator Sparkman (D-AL) submits Senator Mondale's statement in opposition to Senator Tower's (R-TX) Amendment No. 822 to the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968, limiting eligibility for a home ownership program. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (May 27, 1968): 15110-15118. (Mondale at 15116)

    • Senators Mondale and Javits (R-NY) introduce S. 2207, providing more flexible mortgage limits in order to encourage home-ownership in high-cost areas for lower income families. The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (May 20, 1969): 13067-13069.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 2758, eliminating income limitations for loans to property owners in urban renewal and code enforcement areas. The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (August 1, 1969): 21883-21884.

    • Senator Mondale submits his telegram to George W. Romney, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, expressing concern over proposed restrictions to the Neighborhood Development Program. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (October 3, 1969): 28345-28347.

    • Senator Mondale states: "In reacting to urgent human problems which do enlist the sympathy of most Americans there is the danger that we are directing too little attention to our non-metropolitan areas—the hinterland of small cities and rural communities. And yet these are the places where many Americans now live, where unplanned and uncontrolled growth is underway, and where many of the decisions affecting our urban future are being decided. I feel that we are coming to realize, much too slowly, the single most important obstacle to improved growth, and that is the lack of a national land use policy;" he submits an article by George H.W. Bush discussing the need for a national land use policy: 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (October 15, 1969): 30162-30165.

    • Senator Mondale discusses the problem of rural migration to the cities: "The need for effective measures to stop the migration—and to reverse it—is clear. Unless we begin actively seeking a balance in the economic attractiveness of rural and urban areas, the cities—no matter how much federal technical and financial help is made available—will become unmanageable and unlivable;" he includes a letter to President Nixon signed by 16 senators expressing concern over the President's approach to the problems and needs of rural America. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 10, 1970): 3042-3044.

    • Senator Mondale states: "The decade just ended, one of the most turbulent in American history, was one in which national self-criticism became a dominant life-style. All of us recognize and are perplexed by the difficulties and divisions which have issued from the often strident criticism of the 1960's. Yet I think it is interesting to note that even out of one of the earliest and most shocking of the urban explosions of the last few years—that which occurred in the Watts ghetto of Los Angeles in 1965—forward strides are still being made;" he submits an article describing the Watts Manufacturing Company as an "outstanding example of ghetto enterprise" and as a strong leader in social action. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (June 2, 1970): 17809-17810.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 4079, increasing the authorization for contributions to low-rent public housing: "Failure to provide this authorization would have a debilitating effect on public housing—the only program that is providing housing for truly low-income families. A stagnating period of nearly a year without authorization to proceed could set back all of the hard-won momentum achieved in this program since 1968. The pipeline would be halted, and the enthusiasm of local communities would be cooled." The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (July 13, 1970): 23844.

    • Senator Mondale addresses community concerns about delayed activity by the Housing and Urban Development's public housing program: "We have asked that HUD consider the development of a separate, less complicated review process for small, non-metropolitan housing authorities;" he submits a letter he and Senators Cranston (D-CA), Proxmire (D-WI), and Williams (D-NJ) sent to Eugene Gulledge, Assistant Secretary for Mortgage Credit in the Department of Housing and Urban Development. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (August 6, 1971): 30336.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 2536, the Housing Opportunities Act of 1971, enabling lower income families to achieve home ownership. The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (September 17, 1971): 32311-32314.

    • Senator Mondale briefly discusses the need for urban planning and submits a speech by Otto A. Silha, publisher, Minneapolis Star and Minneapolis Tribune, entitled "Minnesota's Experimental City—And The Nation's Future Urban Development." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (November 18, 1971): 42001-42002.

    • Senators Brooke (R-MA) and Mondale introduce the Housing Reform Amendments Act of 1971, making housing assistance programs more responsive to families who cannot afford housing within the private market: "This legislation, which we jointly developed, will provide a long overdue revamping of our housing assistance programs to make them more responsive to the needs of the 1970's. Of particular importance to me is that the passage of these amendments would give added flexibility to the public housing and FHA low- and moderate-income housing programs." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (December 10, 1971): 46086-46102. (Mondale at 46100)

    • Senator Nelson (D-WI) submits Senator Mondale's statement on the testimony that Albert A. Walsh made on equal housing opportunity to the House Judiciary Committee. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (December 17, 1971): 47601-47603.

    • Debate on S. 3248, the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1972; Senator Mondale submits an amendment giving the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development "the authority to adjust the minimum in rent in hardship cases and... to make adjustments... on a regional basis." The bill passes the Senate and is referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (March 2, 1972): 6545-6556. (Mondale at 6555)

    • Senator Mondale submits the resolutions adopted by the National Housing Conference: "The resolutions provide an excellent summary of existing housing and urban development programs, current funding levels and recommendations for changing and improving the programs." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (April 6, 1972): 11691-11744.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 3707, reducing the FHA mortgage insurance premium from 1/2 of 1 percent to 1/4 of 1 percent: "The American home buyer has paid a very high price for ill-conceived economic policies in the past few years. He has paid and continues to pay outrageously high mortgage rates. The Congress needs to attack this problem, and accepting my proposal on insurance premiums is one important way to do so." The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (June 14, 1972): 20771-20772.

    • Discussion of S. 3066, the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (introduced in February by Senator Sparkman, D-AL); Senator Mondale introduces an amendment that sets the maximum income limit for eligibility for housing assistance to 90 percent of the median income in a given area, instead of the bill's proposed 80 percent. The bill is passed by the House and the Senate and later becomes Public Law 93-383. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (March 8, 1974): 5949-5961. (Mondale at 5955)

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 3200, the Homeowner's Loan Act of 1974, helping people faced with the loss of their home: "I am today introducing legislation which attempts to anticipate a possible tragedy for thousands of Americans and, most importantly, to avoid it. I am talking of the heartbreak of losing one's home. And, for literally thousands of Americans, that heartbreak may become a reality over the next several months." The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (March 20, 1974): 7392-7395.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 660, the Homeowner's Act of 1975: "So that the federal government ... may be ready to cope with this tragedy and aid families faced with mortgage foreclosure, I am today introducing standby legislation which would reactivate the Home Owners' Loan Corporation. The legislation is designed to become operative only when the foreclosure situation reaches crisis proportions and provides real help to those American families faced with the loss of their homes." The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (February 11, 1975): 2959-2963.

    • Debate on S. 1483, the Emergency Housing Act of 1975 (introduced in April by Senator Proxmire, D-WI), and its amendments. Senator Mondale discusses the need to anticipate mortgage foreclosures due to unemployment and he introduces an amendment that would provide emergency mortgage relief payments, making it possible for homeowners who lose their jobs to keep their homes. His amendment is agreed to. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (April 24, 1975): 11622-11635, 11651-11661.

    • Consideration of the conference report for H.R. 4485; Senator Mondale supports the conference report and is pleased that it includes his amendment adding a foreclosure relief provision to the bill. The conference report is agreed to. H.R. 4485 is passed in lieu of S. 1483. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (June 11, 1975): 18372-18381. (Mondale at 18379)

    • Senator Mondale expresses disappointment at President Ford's veto of H.R. 4485, the Emergency Housing Act of 1975: "I only wish the President had read my mail on this subject before he decided to veto this bill. I wish he would have read the letters from hundreds of Minnesotans who are literally terrified at the prospect of foreclosure. I wish Mr. Ford would have listened to their calls for help." Congress fails to override the veto. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (June 19, 1975): 19710-19711.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 2014, the Emergency Mortgage Relief Act of 1975, in response to President Ford's veto of H.R. 4485, the Emergency Housing Act of 1975: "I am not convinced ... that the President is totally opposed to a program of foreclosure relief. It is in the hope that the President and the Department of Housing and Urban Development will be receptive to helping the thousands of American families faced with foreclosure that I introduce this legislation today. The proposal I send to the desk embodies the foreclosure relief amendment I offered to H.R. 4485 on the Senate floor." The bill is referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (June 25, 1975): 20760-20761.

    • Final vote on H.R. 5398, the Emergency Homeowner's Relief Act (introduced in March by Representative Ashley, D-OH), authorizing "temporary assistance to help delay mortgage payments on homes owned by persons who are temporarily unemployed or underemployed as the result of adverse economic conditions." Senator Mondale expresses his support for the bill and points out that he has been trying to bring about "an enactment of this much-needed measure" for the past two years. The bill is passed and later becomes Public Law 94-50. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (June 26, 1975): 21045-21047.

    • Senator Mondale is frustrated with and disappointed in the failure of the Department of Housing and Urban Development to implement the Emergency Homeowner's Relief Act: "Once again, the Ford administration has shown its unwillingness to help the victims of unemployment. Once again it has shown a lack of compassion for those hurt most by this Nation's economic distress." 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (September 10, 1975): 28423-28426.


    Job Programs
    • Senator Mondale expresses support for S. 1648, the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965: "This legislation represents a sound approach to the problems of labor surplus and economic decline in many areas of the Nation. It extends and improves the important features of the area redevelopment program, the accelerated public works program, and the Appalachian redevelopment experience. It proposes to deal with underdevelopment by a concerted regional and areawide attack, grouping distressed areas together to form economically viable development districts." The bill is passed. 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (June 1, 1965): 12149-12184. (Mondale at 12168)

    • Senator Mondale applauds President Johnson's signing of the Partnership for Health Act: "The Partnership for Health Act mobilizes the energies of all levels of government in an all-out war against disease by providing Federal funds for health services which States and communities deem vital; by enlisting the resources of the nation in a total effort to control and eliminate rat infestation; and by setting strict standards of practice for clinical laboratories, to insure careful, correct examinations." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (December 6, 1967): 35333.

    • Senator Mondale introduces an amendment to H.R. 2767 to reinstate a program for working mothers that was erroneously removed from the 1967 social security legislation: "We hear a great deal these days about the need for self-help. We work ceaselessly to provide opportunities for jobs. In recent years we have stressed the need for helping those who can, to pull themselves out of poverty and dependency through work. Of all the groups that need support, all would agree I think to the importance of helping the mother on welfare to help make this escape. The mothers and children of this country now receiving aid to families with dependent children are among those most deserving of every kind of help we can provide to escape the vicious cycle of poverty that traps generation after generation, one after another." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (September 23, 1968): 27816-27819.

    • Senator Mondale argues against an amendment proposed by Senator Long (D-LA): "This amendment seems to undermine the very goals which the Congress established in passing the Medicare and Medicaid programs.... These programs established a very important principle and it was this: High quality comprehensive health services should be the right of all Americans, not the privilege alone of those with the ability to pay for them." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (October 8, 1968): 30066-30069.

    • Senator Mondale supports Senate Resolution 183, deferring the closing of Job Corps camps until Congress has had the opportunity to review the Job Corps program; he is critical of President Nixon's decision to hastily close 59 of the 109 Job Corps centers. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (May 5, 1969): 10465-10470, 11302-11308.

    • The Senate debates Senate Resolution 194, expressing opposition of the Senate to the Department of Labor's decision to close 59 Job Corps conservation centers; Senator Mondale opposes the closures and argues that there are inadequate alternate programs for young men; Senate Resolution 194 is rejected. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (May 13, 1969): 12285-12326. (Mondale at 12313)

    • Senator Mondale opposes the administration's reductions in funds for medical research and training: "It seems incredible to me, and to many of my constituents, that a nation willing to expend billions of dollars on defense procurement and supersonic transports lacks the will to support desperately needed research on cancer, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, or heart, respiratory, and neurological disease. It seems equally incredible that we, as a nation, lack the resources to invest in the well-being of our citizens through supporting the educational development of every person capable of becoming a member of the health profession." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (October 28, 1969): 31819-31822.

    • Debate on whether to consider S. 2193, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1969; Senators Williams (D-NJ), Javits (R-NY), and Mondale argue for the bill to be considered; Senators Dominick (R-CO) and Saxbe (R-OH) argue against consideration. Senator Mondale states, "I do not underestimate the controversial nature of this proposal. It is a fundamental, basic attempt to deal with one of the nation's greatest problems, occupational hazards, which annually cause some 14,000 deaths and some 2.5 million permanently injured Americans. All I am saying is that I think we ought to just take it up, go to work on it, and give it the debate and the consideration that it deserves, and we ought to be mindful ... of the fact that each day's delay will cost lives.... I wish this legislation had been adopted 30 years ago." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (October 13, 1970): 36508-36509, 36511-36523.

    • Senator Mondale introduces amendments to the H.R. 17550, the Social Security Act, increasing benefits under Social Security, improving Medicare and Medicaid, and improving maternal and child health programs. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (December 17, 1970): 42163-42166.

    • **Senator Mondale introduces S. 2718, providing for the protection of temporary workers: "We know something about the workers involved. We know something about the firms which hire them and then hire them out to others. We know something about the extremely rapid growth of the temporary help service industry. And we know of the abuses that many workers have suffered and against which virtually all have absolutely no protection. One group of workers, those doing unskilled, manual labor, are often employed under such shocking conditions that their employers are known as slave shops....It is urgent that protective legislation be enacted for such temporary workers." The bill is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (October 19, 1971): 36652-36654.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 3046, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Act of 1972, providing for accelerated research, development, training, and public education in those fields: "This bill should stimulate an intensive national effort to combat cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and other heart and blood disorders. It will provide authority for a comprehensive research, educational, and preventive program in these disease areas through the National Heart and Lung Institute and other public and private agencies." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (January 20, 1972): 527-531.

    • Senator Mondale speaks in support of Senator Kennedy's (D-MA) Health Maintenance Organization and Resources Development Act of 1972, providing support for health maintenance organizations, health service organizations, and health education: "I think it may well be one of the most significant pieces of health legislation considered by the Congress in this decade. Proposed national health insurance legislation addresses itself, primarily, to the financing of health care. This legislation is addressed to the equally important problem of delivering that care to the people." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (March 13, 1972): 7965-7993. (Mondale at 7974)

    • Discussion of S. 1136, the Public Health Service Act Extension of 1973; Senator Mondale urges Congress to extend health services and community action programs; he accuses the administration of trying to "prevent the Congress from expressing its will concerning such vital programs as the Hill-Burton hospital program, the regional medical program, the community mental health centers program, allied health training, and public health training." He states, "I cannot believe that the Congress is ready to close its doors and turn over all of the powers of government to the President of the United States. We were elected to legislate—and legislate we must. This bill is an essential step in carrying out our constitutional responsibilities." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (March 27, 1973): 9598-9619. (Mondale at 9613)

    • Senator Mondale decries the end of the national regional medical program without Congressional approval as "yet another example of the administration's lawless disregard for the constitutional responsibilities of the Congress;" he submits an article on the Northlands Regional Medical Program. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (March 28, 1973): 9960.

    • Senator Mondale urges his colleague to override the President's veto of S. 7, the Vocational Rehabilitation Act: "If there is one program in which we know what we are doing and in which we know that every investment we make will be returned in a very real sense, it is this program.... If we cannot override this veto, I do not see how we can override any of the others, and the President will be an emperor." The Senate fails to override the President's veto. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (April 3, 1973): 10794-10823. (Mondale at 10803)

    • Senator Mondale is disappointed in the closing of the Northlands Regional Medical Program in Minnesota as a result of federal budget cuts: "The threatened program, the Northlands Regional Medical program, has provided severely needed health care to many residents of the state who previously did not even have access to a doctor. A mobile van has offered medical services to residents of 18 towns with no doctors at all in one county. Residents of the Nett Lake Indian Reservation, which is 58 miles from the nearest doctor, had been looking forward to daily clinics which were to be provided under the program." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (April 11, 1973): 11912-11913.

    • Senator Mondale expresses disappointment in the Senate's failure to override President Nixon's veto of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973: "One of the most disappointing votes I have observed in the Senate in a long time was the failure to override the President's veto of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 last week. If this legislation had been approved, a maximum of 2 million of the 5 to 7 million handicapped persons needing rehabilitation services would have received them. That, at least, would have been progress. But by sustaining the veto we have made regression, rather than progress, inevitable;" he submits an analysis of the effect the veto will have on services to the handicapped in Minnesota. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (April 11, 1973): 11907-11908.

    • Senator Mondale submits a speech by Senator Nelson (D-WI) to the Comprehensive Health Planning Agency of Wisconsin in which he stresses the need for stronger health planning in order to meet increasing demand: "Senator Nelson is one of the most knowledgeable men in the Senate on the subject of medicine and health care. His father was a country doctor and his mother a nurse. He is a member of the Senate Health Subcommittee, and for nearly 6 years has conducted extensive hearings into the competitive practices of the prescription drug industry.... When Senator Nelson speaks on health care and related subjects, his observations deserve the widest possible dissemination." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (May 30, 1973): 17284-17286.


    Rural America
    • Senator Mondale is frustrated with the administration's freezing of $20 million appropriated for loans to rural electric cooperatives: "The Nixon administration is forcing rural electric systems to deplete their financial resources to dangerously low levels. This restrictive policy is forcing more and more systems to delay construction, postpone the heavying up of facilities, turn away new consumers, use hand-to-mouth operations which threaten credit rating, and pose problems in meeting payrolls. The continuation of these practices will eventually bring about an erosion of the capability of rural electric systems to carry out their utility responsibilities in their service areas." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (June 2, 1970): 17829-17832.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 4480, the Community Medicine Act of 1970, improving the quality and availability of medical care in communities lacking adequate medical care services. The bill is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (October 14, 1970): 36825-36827.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 1301, improving the quality and availability of medical services in communities lacking adequate medical care services: "Our present health delivery system is so badly in need of reform, it should not be made a partisan issue. The American people deserve nothing less than our most diligent effort to improve their health care. Advancement will not come easily, and if we are successful there will be credit enough for everyone." This is the same bill he introduced in the previous Congress as S. 4480. The bill is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (March 19, 1971): 7150-7155.

    • Senators Humphrey (D-MN) and Mondale submit Senate Concurrent Resolution 56, asking the Senate place a moratorium on further abandonment of rail services until December 31, 1972, in order to provide time for appropriate investigations to be conducted to determine what might be done to continue such transportation services, where needed. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 2, 1972): 2308-2309.

    • Senator Mondale supports S. 3462, the Rural Development Act of 1972: "I believe that this is the most comprehensive and most vital rural development measure since the Homestead Act. It will help to form the foundations upon which improved quality of life for all Americans can be built." H.R. 12931 is passed in lieu and becomes Public Law 92-419. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (April 20, 1972):13833-13844. (Mondale at 13840)

    • Senator Mondale discusses the need to keep rural railroads functioning: "The abandonment of rural railroad branch lines is another growing force adding to the strength of several factors already choking off the vitality of rural America. This abandonment of short railroad lines in rural America is just the beginning of a disastrous process that could eventually disrupt the rural economy, kill many communities and cause chaos in the national transportation complex." He includes his testimony and that of Minnesota Governor Wendell Anderson at an Interstate Commerce Commission hearing. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (April 27, 1972): 14720-14723.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 3634, establishing a Rural Rail Transportation Administration within the Department of Transportation: "This legislation is an effort to provide rural community groups with a means to continue rail service when it is important to the economic growth and development of communities." The bill is referred to the Committee on Commerce. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (May 23, 1972): 18363-18364.

    • Senator Mondale introduces an amendment to S. 3327, the Health Maintenance Organization and Resources Development Act of 1972: "What this amendment is designed to do is to make certain that provisions of the pending legislation are realistically adapted to the problems that are faced in rural areas, where there may not be any type of organizational structures one might expect to find initially in urban areas." S. 3327 is passed. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (September 20, 1972): 31601-31616.

    • Senator Mondale expresses concern about the administration's unilateral decision to abandon a rural electric and telephone loan program: "Disregarding the immediate impact of the loan program cancellation, this decision has ominous implications for the integrity of the American constitutional system. The concept of separation of powers, embodied in our Constitution, is designed to prevent any one branch of Government from becoming all powerful, at the expense of a true and stable democracy. Under the Constitution, the President is given veto power if he feels a bill should not be made law. But in their wisdom our Founding Fathers did not invest the Presidency with unlimited power to repeal laws once they have been approved.... The administration's actions are nothing less than usurpation of powers rightfully belonging to the Congress; ... the actual language and legislative history of the Rural Development Act clearly show that at no time was it the intent of Congress to repeal the Rural Electrification Act." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (January 23, 1973): 1986-1987.

    • Discussion of S. 394 (introduced in January by Senator Humphrey, D-MN), restoring the federal rural electric and telephone direct loan programs; Senator Mondale argues, "If the executive branch can unilaterally cast aside the Rural Electrification Act, then which of our laws is secure?" The bill is passed and becomes Public Law 93-32. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (February 21, 1973): 4899-4915. (Mondale at 4903)

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 1749, providing continuing rail transportation in rural America: "This legislation is designed to provide rural community groups with a way to continue rail service when it is important to the economic growth and development of communities." The bill is referred to the Committee on Commerce. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (May 8, 1973): 14694-14695.

    • Senator Mondale submits two amendments to S. 2188 (introduced in July by Senator Hartke, D-IN), the Midwest and Northeast Rail System Development Act: "These amendments are designed to address the critical inadequacy of America's rural transportation system and to prevent the continued decline in rail services to rural communities." The measure is indefinitely postponed in Senate. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (October 9, 1973): 33249-33251.

    • Discussion of S. 2767 (introduced in December by Senator Hartke, D-IN), the Rail Services Act of 1973; Senator Mondale discusses the implications of the abandonment of railroad services to rural areas and introduces (with Senator Humphrey, D-MN) two amendments to S. 2767 addressing these issues. The measure is indefinitely postponed in the Senate. H.R. 9142 is passed in lieu and becomes Public Law 93-236. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (December 11, 1973): 40683-40699. (Mondale at 40695)

    • Discussion of the conference report on H.R. 9142, the Northeast Rail Services Act; Senator Mondale opposes the report because it neglects rail service to rural communities. The conference report is agreed to. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (December 21, 1973): 43092-43099. (Mondale at 43098)

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 3438, the Rural Rail Preservation Act of 1974; this is legislation he introduced with Senators Humphrey (D-MN), Schweiker (R-PA), and Clark (D-IA) in December 1973. He states, "Instead of hastening the demise of America's rural transportation system, the Federal Government ought to be moving to upgrade that system. Steps should be taken to modernize rail lines that would be profitable if only track and roadbed were restored to an adequate condition." Reasons he gives to support his argument include food production, the impact on rural areas, energy use, and environmental impact. The bill is referred to the Committee on Commerce. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (May 2, 1974): 12863-12864.


    Poverty and Hunger
    • Debate on H.R. 8283, a bill to expand the war on poverty and enhance the effectiveness of programs under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964; Senator Mondale submits an address by Karl F. Rolvaag, Governor of Minnesota, in which he reports on the economic opportunity programs in Minnesota. The bill is passed. 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (August 19, 1965): 21137-21158.

    • Senator Mondale speaks in support of President Johnson's "war on poverty" and briefly cites improvements in education, legal services for the poor, and health programs: "I want to recite some of the success statistics which our opponents would like to mask as they attack President Johnson and the nationwide poverty effort." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (June 23, 1967): 17155-17156.

    • Senator Mondale states: "There has been much loose talk of late about 'repealing the Great Society' and abandoning the war on poverty. Such ideas have come both from those who on principle are opposed to any progressive social welfare programs and those who generally support such programs but feel that the Nation's financial commitment in Vietnam does not permit our simultaneous support for aggressive domestic programs as well." He submits an article by Senator Nelson (D-WI) that "has answered these proposals for retrenchment of domestic programs with the vigorous rejoinder that to abandon the Great Society would be the height of folly and irresponsibility." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (July 21, 1967): 19675-19676.

    • Senator McGovern (D-SD) introduces Senate Resolution 281 that states that "every resident of the Nation should be assured the basic food, clothing, and other necessities essential to life and health" and establishes a select committee of the Senate "to study the unmet basic needs among people of the United States." Senator Mondale is a cosponsor. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (April 22, 1968): 10181-10184, 10789.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 3507, the Domestic Food Assistance Act of 1968, launching a "new attack on malnutrition, hunger, and starvation in this country...." The bill is referred to the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (May 16, 1968): 13671-13676.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 6, the Domestic Food Assistance Act of 1969: "The bill I am introducing today would remedy some of the defects in the existing programs. While it preserves and continues the best features of the Food Stamp Act and other programs, it is a complete legislative overhaul of those laws. Its purpose is to assure that no person in this land of riches and plenty need starve or suffer malnutrition because of insufficient income." The bill is referred to the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (January 15, 1969): 786-788.

    • Senator Mondale protests the 40% budget cut to the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "This is simply not acceptable, especially in light of some of the evidence of hunger and malnutrition which our committee has already received.... While have just skimmed the surface, it is already evident that the problems of hunger in America are even more severe than any of us anticipated.... The American people have closely followed these hearings [by the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs]. Surely they will not want to see its work hamstrung by an inadequate budget." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (February 7, 1969): 3238.

    • Discussion of the trip to Florida taken by the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs; Senator Mondale submits a press statement regarding the trip. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 24, 1969): 7308-7313.

    • Discussion of S. 2547, amending the Food Stamp Act of 1964; Senator Mondale is a cosponsor. He speaks of his experiences witnessing the effects of malnutrition and hunger in his travels throughout the country as a member of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (September 24, 1969): 26848-26890. (Mondale at 26854)

    • Discussion of S. 3016, the Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1969, providing for the continuation of programs addressing poverty under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964; Senator Mondale speaks in support of the bill: "This bill ... will strengthen and improve desperately needed antipoverty efforts." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (October 13, 1969): 29676-29683. (Mondale at 29680)

    • Further discussion of S. 3016, the Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1969. The bill passes and becomes Public Law 91-177. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (October 14, 1969): 29890-29932. (Mondale at 29891)

    • Senator Kennedy (D-MA) submits a speech by Senator Mondale to the White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health: "The Senator from Minnesota spoke at the White House conference this afternoon, and he eloquently reviewed our Nation's sorrowful response to the needs of hungry people. He eloquently chronicled the way we have promised and flattered hungry Americans. But, we have continually failed to feed them. Senator Mondale properly cites the powerlessness of the poor as the real cause of hunger and deprivation." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (December 4, 1969): 36977-36978.

    • Discussion of Senate Resolution 323, extending the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs; Senator Mondale supports the resolution: "I think the work of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, on which I am privileged to serve, has been one of the truly remarkable achievements of the last Congress." The resolution is agreed to. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 16, 1970): 3430-3436.

    • Senator Mondale supports the extension of the Economic Opportunity Act for two years: "I think that OEO [Office of Economic Opportunity] has made substantial progress in the difficult struggle against the grinding dehumanization of poverty. We have made a good start, but the job is nowhere near done. If we do not continue to build on the base already established, we will not just stand still, we will lose the hard-fought advantages we have gained. Therefore we must commit ourselves to continuing the authorization for OEO and its programs. Having done that, we can act to strengthen the war on poverty." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (March 19, 1971): 7222-7223.

    • Senator Harris (D-OK) submits Senator Mondale's introduction to Freedom from Dependence: Welfare Reform as a Solution to Poverty, by Stanley Esterly and Glen Esterly. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (September 24, 1971): 33285.

    • Senator Mondale is critical of the Department of Agriculture's decision not to provide food stamps in many parts of Puerto Rico: "This would consign poor Puerto Ricans to hunger forever. Since the cost of food is higher on the island, the benefits under the program must be at least equal to benefits in the States, and the Secretary's recent establishment of lower allotments for Puerto Rico is plainly unreasonable. I urge the Department of Agriculture to change its unfair schedules for food stamp program participation in Puerto Rico. The Secretary should immediately issue schedules which will enable the impoverished residents of Puerto Rico and our territories to receive their food stamp assistance in accordance with the intent of Congress." 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (May 6, 1974): 13213.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 4082, the Social Services Amendments of 1974: "This legislation is based on the old-fashioned notion that dignified work is better than welfare, that independence and self-sufficiency are better than life in a State-supported home." The bill is referred to the Committee on Finance. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (October 3, 1974): 33775-33782.

    • Debate on H.R. 17045, the Social Services Amendments of 1974, and whether to invoke cloture: "We have worked for more than 2 years with the States, with the commissioners of welfare, with the interested Members of the Senate, with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and with a host of private agencies interested in the social services program. We have developed new understanding about how that program should work. I think the time has come—indeed, it is long overdue—when this issue should be settled permanently by law, so that the States will know what they are dealing with and the other parties interested in the social services programs throughout the Nation will know the ground rules upon which this important program rests. So I am very hopeful that we might invoke cloture and send this measure to conference, where the differences can be resolved." The cloture motion is agree to. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (December 17, 1974): 40315-40341, 40358. (Mondale at 40323)

    • Debate on the Social Services Amendments of 1974 Conference Report; Senator Mondale supports the conference report and is pleased that it includes many of the provisions he introduced in S. 4082. The conference report is agreed to. The bill becomes Public Law 93-647. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (December 20, 1974): 41652-41656. (Mondale at 41653)

    • Debate on S. 35 (introduced in January by Sen. McGovern, D-SD), maintaining the nutritional adequacy of the food stamp program. Senator Mondale is critical of the Ford administration's attempt to increase costs for the recipients of the food stamp program: "If the new regulations are aimed at decreasing federal expenditures, they represent a cruel attempt at budget manipulation at the expense of the less fortunate. If the new regulations are aimed at encouraging self-reliance, they affect those least able to find jobs, find decent housing, and alter their lifestyles. If the new regulations are intended to enforce the food stamp legislation in the way Congress intended, they totally miss the mark." H.R.1589 is passed in lieu and becomes Public Law 94-4. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (February 5, 1975): 2590-2607. (Mondale at 2600)


    General Social Service

    Health Care
    • Senator Mondale applauds President Johnson's signing of the Partnership for Health Act: "The Partnership for Health Act mobilizes the energies of all levels of government in an all-out war against disease by providing Federal funds for health services which States and communities deem vital; by enlisting the resources of the nation in a total effort to control and eliminate rat infestation; and by setting strict standards of practice for clinical laboratories, to insure careful, correct examinations." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (December 6, 1967): 35333.

    • Senator Mondale argues against an amendment proposed by Senator Long (D-LA): "This amendment seems to undermine the very goals which the Congress established in passing the Medicare and Medicaid programs.... These programs established a very important principle and it was this: High quality comprehensive health services should be the right of all Americans, not the privilege alone of those with the ability to pay for them." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (October 8, 1968): 30066-30069.

    • Senator Mondale opposes the administration's reductions in funds for medical research and training: "It seems incredible to me, and to many of my constituents, that a nation willing to expend billions of dollars on defense procurement and supersonic transports lacks the will to support desperately needed research on cancer, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, or heart, respiratory, and neurological disease. It seems equally incredible that we, as a nation, lack the resources to invest in the well-being of our citizens through supporting the educational development of every person capable of becoming a member of the health profession." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (October 28, 1969): 31819-31822.

    • Senator Mondale introduces amendments to the H.R. 17550, the Social Security Act, increasing benefits under Social Security, improving Medicare and Medicaid, and improving maternal and child health programs. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (December 17, 1970): 42163-42166

    • **Senator Mondale introduces S. 3046, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Act of 1972, providing for accelerated research, development, training, and public education in those fields. The bill is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (January 20, 1972): 527-531.

    • Senator Mondale speaks in support of Senator Kennedy's (D-MA) Health Maintenance Organization and Resources Development Act of 1972, providing support for health maintenance organizations, health service organizations, and health education: "I think it may well be one of the most significant pieces of health legislation considered by the Congress in this decade. Proposed national health insurance legislation addresses itself, primarily, to the financing of health care. This legislation is addressed to the equally important problem of delivering that care to the people." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (March 13, 1972): 7965-7993. (Mondale at 7974)

    • Discussion of S. 1136, the Public Health Service Act Extension of 1973; Senator Mondale urges Congress to extend health services and community action programs; he accuses the administration of trying to "prevent the Congress from expressing its will concerning such vital programs as the Hill-Burton hospital program, the regional medical program, the community mental health centers program, allied health training, and public health training." He states, "I cannot believe that the Congress is ready to close its doors and turn over all of the powers of government to the President of the United States. We were elected to legislate— and legislate we must. This bill is an essential step in carrying out our constitutional responsibilities." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (March 27, 1973): 9598-9619. (Mondale at 9613)

    • Senator Mondale is disappointed in the closing of the Northlands Regional Medical Program in Minnesota as a result of federal budget cuts. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (April 11, 1973): 11912-11913.


    Council of Social Advisers
    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 843, The Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act of 1967: "This proposed legislation is designed to give us a clear and precise picture of how well we are doing in our efforts to provide a decent life and full opportunity for all Americans.... We need new tools to assess our efforts and progress in the area of social reform, and for better understanding of these efforts and the state of our social health as a nation." The bill would establish a Council of Social Advisers; require an annual report from the President on the nation's social health; and establish a joint committee of Congress to review the President's report. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (February 6, 1967): 2652-2656.

    • Senator Mondale announces hearings on S. 843: "I believe the hearings ... will do much to stimulate discussion and thought about our domestic social programs, how well we are doing in the social field, and what should be done in the future." He submits an article discussing the problem of social priorities and evaluation; the intent of the Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act; and governmental efforts to develop social indicators. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (July 18, 1967): 19135-19136.

    • Senator Nelson (D-WI) submits an article by Senator Mondale entitled "New Tools for Social Progress;" Senator Harris (D-OK), chairman of the Subcommittee on Government Research, voices support for Senator Mondale's Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act of 1967. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (September 11, 1967): 25030-25032, 25059-25061.

    • Senator Nelson states, "There is little doubt that the domestic crisis facing our Nation today requires new imaginative approaches and programs in order to resolve this problem. While the research for the solutions should be nationwide, Senator Mondale's proposal will give direction to the many efforts initiated by sociologists, historians, criminologists, psychologists, and other scholars and public figures." He submits an article by Senator Mondale entitled "Reporting on the Social State of the Union." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (June 3, 1968): 15764-15765.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 5, the Full Opportunity Act of 1969: "Since 1967, new and compelling—and sometimes violent—social phenomena have underscored our lack of knowledge and insensitivity to the human tragedies in our midst. Not only do we lack prediction of the social consequences of individual program decisions; beyond that, our means of measuring results are so primitive as to be practically nonexistent. So how do we measure the gap between vague social goals and our supposed performance as a society in meeting them? Why were the riots of 1967 such a surprise, and why were we so unprepared? One of the reasons is that none of us—policymakers, program directors, citizens—knew how close we were to explosion. And in the wake of discovering our ignorance about the state of hunger in America, there is now much talk of establishing priorities, of making choices among programs and means of spending the money that is available to further our national social effort. Until we can describe the conditions we have, until we can define the results we want, until we can speak in terms of what has happened to a human being instead of how much money has been spent on him, this will be empty talk. Our measures so far have been measures of effort when what we need are measures of change." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (January 15, 1969): 780-786.

    • Senator Mondale submits the introduction of Toward a Social Report, a study by the Department of Housing, Education, and Welfare that "attempts to measure where we are in several important areas—health, social mobility, our physical environment; income and poverty; public order and safety; learning, science, and art; and participation and alienation." Senator Mondale describes it as "a preliminary working model for the annual social report which would be submitted to Congress by the President if the Full Opportunity Act of 1969 - S. 5 - were enacted." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (February 4, 1969): 2671-2676.

    • Senator Mondale submits the third chapter of Toward a Social Report entitled "Our Physical Environment." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 4, 1969): 5223-5226.

    • Senator Javits (R-NY) submits an amendment to S. 5 (a bill to create a Council of Social Advisers), for himself and Senator Mondale, establishing an Office of Goals and Priorities Analysis. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (December 16, 1969): 39243-39246.

    • Senator Harris (D-OK) submits Senator Mondale's statement made before the National Priorities Committee of the Democratic Policy Council. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (March 6, 1970): 6368-6369.

    • Debate on S. 5, the Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities Act; Senator Mondale argues in favor of the bill. The bill is passed by the Senate; it fails to pass the House. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (September 10, 1970): 31167-31174.

    • Senator Mondale re-introduces S. 5, the Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities Act: "After years of experimenting with such techniques as program planning and evaluation systems, we are still quite ill-equipped to measure what our existing programs do accomplish. And we have no adequate means to compare the costs and effectiveness of alternative programs. A council of social advisers ... could unlock the enormous potential of the social sciences to assist the Congress and the Executive in developing and administering public policy." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (January 25, 1971): 315-323.

    • Senator Nelson (D-WI) submits Senator Mondale's article "Social Advisers, Social Accounting, and the Presidency," published in Law and Contemporary Problems92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (August 5, 1971): 29985-29987.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article from the Saint Paul Pioneer Press supporting the proposed Council of Social Advisers. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (September 23, 1971): 33071-33072.

    • Senator Mondale submits a speech by Wilbur J. Cohen, former Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, entitled "The Quality of Life and Social Indicators." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (April 27, 1972): 14741-14745.

    • Consideration of S. 5, the Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities Act; Senator Mondale asserts the need for a Council of Social Advisers: "We lack a strategic approach to the solution of human problems. We have a tactical approach, a great deal of data, and a great deal of minute detail in small areas and a failure to develop a proper overall approach to dealing with our problems. Much of this stems from ignorance about basic facts which is found at the funding level." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (July 25, 1972): 25229-25246.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 5, the Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities Act. Title I of the bill establishes full social opportunity as a national goal, including educational and vocational opportunities, access to housing and health care, special assistance to the handicapped, and a Council of Social Advisers. Title II establishes an office within the Congress which will conduct a continuing analysis of national goals and priorities and will provide the Congress with the information, data, and analysis necessary for enlightened priority decisions. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (January 4, 1973): 148-151.

    • Senators Mondale and Javits (R-NY) discuss the merits of S. 5, the Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities Act. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (July 30, 1973): 26631-26633.

    • Senator Mondale discusses the need for a Council of Social Advisers: "The effectiveness of government food programs should be measured not by the amount of money spent on them, but by whether children in families receiving food stamps are healthier and stronger. The effectiveness of education programs should be measured not by dollars spent or classrooms built, but by whether children are learning more. The effectiveness of crime prevention programs should be measured not by the number of policemen on the streets, but by whether people in the neighborhood feel safe going out at night. The new Council of Social Advisers would spur the further development of these new social indicators. Instead of the so-called 'cold facts' of dollars spent and resources used, we will have the 'hot facts' which measure the real impact of social developments and programs on people's everyday lives. This kind of information is desperately needed if we are to make knowledgeable decisions on the many issues that confront us. But we do not have it now." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (September 11, 1973): 29194-29201.


    Speeches & Publications Submitted
    • Senator Mondale submits a series of articles in the Washington Daily News about a Job Corps camp for low income boys: "The Washington Daily News has performed a splendid service by sending its reporter, Samuel Stafford, to the Job Corps camp at Catoctin, Md. His three part series of articles tells how Troy Weaver, a 34-year-old camp counselor who once played with the Harlem Globetrotters, has managed to deal with the fears and hopes of young boys who recently have arrived at this youth conservation camp near Washington, D.C. I am sure that the war on poverty will enlist many fine young men like Troy Weaver. His experiences illustrate that it is possible to inspire despondent young boys to better themselves." 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (March 25, 1965): 5901-5904.

    • Senator Mondale submits a series of articles in the Minneapolis Tribune: "These articles tell about low-income Minnesota men and women, boys and girls, who are being helped by the poverty program. They describe many projects in our state, and they discuss, frankly, both the achievements and the problems that have developed." 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (October 8, 1965): 26449-26456.

    • Senator Mondale submits letters from five eminent social scientists and scholars who support the Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act of 1967: John G. Turnbull, University of Minnesota; Amita Etzion, Columbia University; David Caplovitz, Columbia University; David Riesman, Harvard University; and Robert Coles, Harvard University. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (March 14, 1967): 6553-6554.

    • Senator Mondale submits several letters from social scientists offering comment and constructive criticism of the Full Opportunity and Social Accounting act of 1967: Joseph L. Fisher, Resources for the Future, Inc.; Britton Harris, University of Pennsylvania; Lyle W. Shannon, University of Iowa; Ivan Belknap, University of Texas; Roy G. Francis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Howard E. Freeman, Brandeis University; Eliot Freidson, New York University; and Peter I. Rose, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (March 21, 1967): 7483-7485.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article by Irving Louis Horowitz and Lee Rainwater, Washington University, discussing The Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (April 27, 1967): 11008-11009.

    • Senator Mondale submits editorials from the Saint Paul Pioneer Press, the Minneapolis Star, and the Milwaukee Journal endorsing S. 843, the Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (May 1, 1967): 11267-11268.

    • Senator Mondale submits letters from people who have benefited from various poverty programs: "We are all familiar, of course, with the endless number of secondhand and third hand accounts of the program's ineffectiveness. For the sake of simple fairness, I believe we have the obligation to listen to those who have new hope as a result of the various Economic Opportunity Act...." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (May 9, 1967): 12143-12144.

    • Senator Mondale briefly summarizes and then submits a speech by Raymond A. Bauer, Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration, in which he discusses the need for social indicators. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (May 15, 1967): 12550-12553.

    • Senator Mondale submits a paper on the need for a national urban development policy: "What is true in housing and urban development is no less true for other domestic programs. We must have rational planning, based on the best and most pertinent data available, which takes into account social as well as economic considerations." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (May 19, 1967): 13289-13292.

    • Senator Mondale submits the first volume of Social Goals and Indicators for American Society published in the Annals of the American Academy of Political Science and Social Science: "This volume of the Annals relates to a subject that will be considered in depth this coming Monday at a seminar ... [which] will consider legislation entitled 'The Full Opportunity and Accounting Act of 1967.... In an introduction to the Annals, Professor Gross has described the history of, need for, and potential of social accounting...." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (June 20, 1967): 16387-16392.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article from the Wall Street Journal about the increasing effectiveness of periodic health check-ups; he voices his support for a bill introduced by Senator Williams (D-NJ), making health screening available to people over 50. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (August 7, 1967): 21610-21612.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article from The Wall Street Journal about the increasing effectiveness of periodic health check-ups; he voices his support for a bill introduced by Senator Williams (D-NJ), making health screening available to people over 50. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (August 7, 1967): 21610-21612.

    • Senator Mondale submits a two-part synopsis on rural poverty by Rev. William Mehrkens (Bemidji, MN): "The first portion of this statement is an unusually concise and thorough statement of the problem of poverty in rural Minnesota. The second portion is an even more unusual statement: a detailed and comprehensive listing of the practical steps which must be taken if local antipoverty efforts in rural areas are to meet with even modest success." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (August 15, 1967): 22618-22619.

    • Senator Mondale submits an interview with Vice President Hubert Humphrey discussing the "administrative, fiscal, program, and psychic dimensions of the nation's urban dilemma." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (August 30, 1967): 24559-24560.

    • Senator Mondale urges his colleague not to lose sight of people: "The human being is the target of our effort. We must not forget that individual men, women, and children, living with little hope for a better tomorrow, are the only reason for the Economic Opportunity Act." He submits a column by Rev. Oliver Dufresne (Grove City, MN) discussing poverty from a personal perspective. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (September 11, 1967): 25038.

    • Senator Mondale submits a letter from Intercounty Community Council, a community action agency in rural northwestern Minnesota: "This letter serves as a testimonial to the efforts of the poverty program and as an example of how local communities in a rural area have been able to improve the conditions of the poor." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (September 29, 1967): 27386.

    • Senator Mondale states: "I have long been concerned with the need for adequate long-term planning to provide sound plans and projects for the growth of our metropolitan areas. Skilled planning agencies at the local level are necessary to help the Federal Government plan and budget Federal grant-in-aid programs for urban improvement;" he submits a speech by Charles M. Haar, Assistant Secretary for Metropolitan Development, Department of Housing and Urban Development, discussing the need for long-term planning for metropolitan areas. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (October 4, 1967): 27880-27881.

    • Senator Mondale submits letters from corporate executives to Vice President Humphrey endorsing the Job Corps program, as well as a letter by Vice President Humphrey sent to the Minneapolis Tribune90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (October 18, 1967): 29235-29236.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article indicating that homeownership has advantages for the neighborhood: "This is just one more piece of evidence on the need to broaden our housing policy to include a program of home ownership for lower income families. This seems to be the one 'missing link' in our policy." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (October 24, 1967): 29773-29775.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article on VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America): "VISTA is one of the O[ffice of] E[conomic] O[pportunity] programs that has met with wide acceptance and popularity, not only among those in poverty, whom VISTA volunteers serve, but also among thousands of our dedicated and idealistic young people who have joined the VISTA program. Some of the reasons for VISTA's appeal reveal themselves in an excellent article published in the October 1967 issue of the Minnesota Journal of Education. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (November 2, 1967): 30890-30891.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article by Bertram M. Gross and Michael Springer entitled "New Goals for Social Information:" "I call this article to the attention of Senators both because it tellingly portrays our present dilemma with respect to social information and because it offers some and endorses other specific suggestions for improving our ability to cope with social change." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (November 17, 1967): 33040-33043.

    • Senator Mondale discusses in detail the Red Lake Reservation's attempts to overcome poverty; he submits an open letter to the members of Congress from the Red Lake Indian Tribal Council asking for its support of poverty programs. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (November 21, 1967): 33468.

    • Senator Mondale submits a paper by William Gorham, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare entitled "Sharpening the Knife that Cuts the Public Pie." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (December 5, 1967): 35004-35010.

    • Senator Mondale submits a speech by John S. Pillsbury, Jr., Chairman, Life Insurance Association of America, to the Mortgage Bankers Association detailing the background and future use of a $1 billion pledge to improve urban housing for the poor: "It is an example of the industry's commitment to make decisions that will have positive social impact. It is a demonstration on the part of one industry that investment can be directed toward assisting the slums of our Nation." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (December 15, 1967): 37059-37061.

    • Senator Mondale submits a series of articles from the Post-Bulletin (Rochester, MN) on the successful housing and education efforts of the Tri-County Goodhue-Rice-Wabasha Citizen's Action Council: "Residents of the Prairie Island Sioux Indian settlement faced the coming of winter with children literally sleeping on the bare ground. The action council mounted its effort to use the services of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Public Health Service, and the Office of Economic Opportunity, initially, and later the Department of Labor. This effort included rehabilitation of a dozen homes last winter and the construction of 10 new and modern houses which have now been completed. Again, using the principle of community involvement, the educational needs of 380 children were met in the same tri-county area. Under an Office of Economic Opportunity grant, 11 Headstart child development centers were established. Competent professional teachers, aided by community residents serving as professional assistants, worked with children who never before had had the opportunity for intellectual growth and physical development offered by the summer programs." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (January 31, 1968): 1719-1720.

    • Senator Mondale submits the second installment of a lecture by William Gorham, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in HEW, entitled "Sharpening the Knife that Cuts the Public Pie:" "I believe Mr. Gorham's remarks on this occasion focus attention on the need for improving our social knowledge. I also believe Mr. Gorham's remarks underscore the necessity of establishing at an early date an agency which can act as a government-wide coordinator of existing social knowledge and a stimulus to the production of additional social information as needed." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (February 7, 1968): 2507-2509.

    • Senator Mondale submits an address by Bertram M. Gross, Syracuse University, in support of his proposal for a Council of Economic Advisers. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (February 21, 1968): 3772-3774.

    • Senator Mondale submits a statement by Walter Reuther, President, United Auto Workers, supporting President Johnson's housing bill calling for a massive building program for low- and moderate-income families: "This pledge of support is typical of Walter Reuther. He has been in the forefront of the Nation's leaders in developing and supporting programs to improve the quality of American life. His leadership in urban affairs is unquestionable, and his support of the b1ll will enhance its prospects for quick passage." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (February 27, 1968): 4269-4270.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article endorsing the Job Corps program written by a man who had not been supportive of the program until a group of Job Corps students visited his town: "Mr. Roeser was indeed impressed with the young men from the center and was pleased to find a group of 'clean-cut, well-dressed, courteous young men' and not the hoodlums he had expected. He was particularly enthusiastic about the change in motivation that these young men had experienced as a result of their stay at Tamarack." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (February 28, 1968): 4519-4520.

    • Senator Mondale states, "It is not only our consciences that must impel immediate action, but also our common sense. Hunger is unforgivable in this abundant land. And the effects of hunger in our society affect us all." He submits an article by Joshua Lederberg in The Washington Post explaining the social repercussions of domestic starvation and malnutrition. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (May 20, 1968): 13980.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article documenting the devastation of hunger on health and the ability to work and learn. He states, "We must and can overcome the problem of hunger in this land. I am confident that a comprehensive attack on starvation and malnutrition such as that included in my bill will help us do just that." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (May 21, 1968): 14204-14206.

    • Senator Mondale submits a report on hunger in Minneapolis published by the Hennepin County Office of Economic Opportunity. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (June 10, 1968): 16572-16573.

    • Senator Mondale is pleased that the Urban League has endorsed the proposed Council of Social Advisers. He submits an article in The New York Times discussing the League's recommendations and support of the proposed Council. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (January 31, 1969): 2405-2406.

    • Senator Mondale submits the first chapter of Toward a Social Report entitled "Health and Illness." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (February 17, 1969): 3479-3483.

    • Senator Mondale submits a Time magazine article entitled "Social Policy - A Measure of Quality," indicating a need for more research in the field of social indicators: "As the article indicates, HEW's report notes that since we do not have such a set of indicators we are unable to say with any certainty or competence whether or not the money spent by the Government to improve education, for example, is in fact "contributing to better learning." The Time article also alludes to some of the difficulties associated with social reporting in general. One such difficulty is the absence of a sophisticated model for the social system comparable to the model for our economic system. This, of course, underscores our need to do more research in the 'social indicators' field." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (February 25, 1969): 4455.

    • Senator Mondale submits the second chapter of Toward a Social Report, entitled "Social Mobility:" "It is indeed ironic that while some men are mobile enough to travel to the moon others lack the mobility to travel out of their ghetto. That we know more about extraterrestrial mobility than intrasocietal mobility is today all too evident and unfortunate. We can no longer afford—in any manner—the luxury of such relative ignorance. To say 'I don't know' is not a satisfactory response to the social problems which now confront us. While knowledge is not a sufficient condition for problem solving, it is a necessary condition. We need both the desire and the competence to solve these problems associated with equal opportunity. We cannot realize our ideal of equal opportunity unless we have an open society—a society which affords and stimulates rather than denies and frustrates social mobility." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (February 25, 1969): 4461-4465.

    • Senator Mondale submits an editorial in the St. Paul Dispatch supporting the Full Opportunity Act: "The editorial pointed to something which I, myself, have long been committed to: The need for social accounting as a basis for social planning. It is difficult for me to understand how we seem to be willing to spend vast sums of money to improve the quality of every American's life; yet, simultaneously seem to have so little interest in analyzing the outcome of our efforts." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 4, 1969): 5222.

    • Senator Mondale submits the fourth chapter of Toward a Social Report entitled "Income and Poverty." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 12, 1969): 6249-6253.

    • Senator Mondale discusses the bill, S. 1291, he recently introduced that is "designed to expand the legal services program of the Office of Economic Opportunity and give it specific legislative endorsement;" he submits a Time magazine article describing the Legal Services Program in Atlanta, Georgia. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 24, 1969): 7238.

    • Senator Mondale submits the fifth chapter of Toward a Social Report entitled "Public Order and Safety." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 24, 1969): 7243-7245.

    • Senator Mondale submits the sixth chapter of Toward a Social Report entitled "Learning, Science, and Art." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 26, 1969): 7692-7696.

    • Senator Mondale submits the last chapter of Toward a Social Report entitled "Participation and Alienation." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 27, 1969): 7981-7985.

    • Senator Mondale submits the remarks of Hubert Humphrey to the Minnesota League of Municipalities: "We are at a decision point in history: what we do now to meet the challenge of urban problems will shape the Nation's future. Our decisions must be well considered, but they must not be delayed." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (July 23, 1969): 20468-20470.

    • Senator Mondale submits a speech by Senator Yarbrough (D-TX) to the American Bar Association on the legal services program: "The speech sets out the value of legal services, what they have accomplished and what they can do. It describes the value of legal services both to the legal profession and to those in our country who are unable to afford the services of a lawyer." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (October 6, 1969): 28609-28610.

    • Senator Mondale submits a report produced by the National Academy of Sciences and the Social Science Research Council that recommends the development of social indicators and an annual social report "which would call public attention to the changes in the condition of a society and analyze the policies the Nation faces." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (October 27, 1969): 31527-31531.

    • Senator Mondale submits a list of 80 law school deans who have signed a statement opposing the Senate amendment giving governors a veto over the Office of Economic Opportunity's Legal Services Program: "Since law school deans play such a major role in the training of future lawyers, I think that Senators should know of their strong opposition to any effort to cripple the legal services program." The organizer of the petition is Dean William B. Lockhart, University of Minnesota Law School. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (November 26, 1969): 35914-35915.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article, "A 10-Point Program to Abolish Poverty by 1980:" "I have had an opportunity to read this series of wide-ranging and provocative proposals. They constitute a well-thought-out blueprint for a coordinated attack on the persistent problem of poverty in the midst of plenty. The proposals, which range from ending racial discrimination, expanding educational opportunities, and improving social security to upgrading our health system, reforming the welfare program, and providing family planning and other social services reflect the breadth and depth of knowledge Dean Cohen has gained from a lifetime of commitment to programs designed to meet human needs." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (December 6, 1969): 37338-37341.

    • Senator Mondale discusses the testimony of Joseph Califano at hearings on S. 5, the Full Opportunity Act: "No testimony received by the subcommittee during 1969 documented that premise so pointedly as did that provided by former Presidential Assistant Joseph A. Califano, Jr. Mr. Califano's remarks provided a shocking indictment of our good-intentioned but hopelessly irrational approach to social policymaking." He submits articles from The New York Times, The Washington Post, and the Saint Paul Pioneer Press supporting the need for improved social policy making. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 16, 1970): 3379-3380.

    • Senator Mondale expresses hope for an early end to the Vietnam War and a "reordering" of national priorities towards spending on domestic needs; he submits an article by Senator McGovern's (D-SD) discussing the need for a national program in economic conversion from military to domestic spending. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (April 1, 1970): 9955-9956.

    • Senator Mondale expresses hope for an early end to the Vietnam War and a "reordering" of national priorities towards spending on domestic needs; he submits an article by Senator McGovern (D-SD) discussing the need for a national program in economic conversion from military to domestic spending. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (April 1, 1970): 9955-9956.

    • Senator Mondale submits "a penetrating analysis" by Carl T. Rowan of the Washington Sunday Star supporting the proposed Council of Social Advisers. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (April 1, 1970): 9954.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article from the Saint Paul Pioneer Press discussing malnutrition among children. The article states: "The true test of this Nation's will to end hunger and malnutrition is whether we can insure an adequate diet to every child in America. We have failed to do so in the past, and the tragedy of hunger and malnutrition in this country is largely a result of this failure." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (May 12, 1970): 15084-15085.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article discussing an unpublished study by the Urban Institute measuring social conditions in a metropolitan area: "The article is of interest because of its summation both of the substantive findings of the report with regard to the Washington metropolitan area, and of the methods used for determining those findings." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (May 12, 1970): 15077.

    • Senator Mondale discusses the Senate passage of S. 5 the previous year and the House's failure to pass the measure; he submits an editorial from the St. Paul Dispatch urging Congress to enact the legislation creating a Council of Social Advisers. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (February 9, 1971): 2222-2223.

    • Senator Mondale submits an editorial from the Lakefield Standard (MN) discussing the impact of various social issues on rural America: "In all the rhetoric on such topics as revenue sharing, unemployment, the state of the economy, our impending population crisis, urban decay, and the need for a better urban-rural balance, we often lose sight of the interrelatedness of these issues. I would like to commend to the attention of my colleagues an editorial appearing in the Lakefield Standard which proves a very clear and vivid picture of what these issues mean to rural America." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (March 2, 1971): 4546-4547.

    • Senator Mondale submits an editorial from the Marshall Messenger (MN) applauding his support of the Rural Job Development Act. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (March 2, 1971): 4559-4560.

    • Senator Mondale submits the comments of A.W. Clausen, Bank of America, and several other articles he considers helpful in the Senate's discussion of S. 5, the Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities Act. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (April 5, 1971): 9647-9650.

    • Senator Mondale submits the statements of Raymond A. Bauer, Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration, and Nicholas J. Demerath III, executive officer of the American Sociological Association, to the Symposium on Applying Knowledge from the Behavioral Sciences to Social Legislation Programs; both statements support Senator Mondale's proposed Council of Social Advisers. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (August 4, 1971): 29283-29289.

    • Senator Mondale submits a speech by J. Irwin Miller entitled "Access to Affluence for All — Or a National Dead End:" "Every so often, a speech or an article appears which jolts us out of our discouragement ... and forces us to think and hope anew about the future of our country. I have just read such a speech." The speech argues that "we should be willing to experiment as boldly with our social institutions as we have with our science and technology, and the sooner the better." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (November 5, 1971): 39585-39587.

    • Senator Mondale submits a speech by J. Irwin Miller entitled "Access to Affluence for All—Or a National Dead End:" "Every so often, a speech or an article appears which jolts us out of our discouragement—and forces us to think and hope anew about the future of our country. I have just read such a speech." The speech argues that "we should be willing to experiment as boldly with our social institutions as we have with our science and technology, and the sooner the better." **92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (November 5, 1971): 39585-39587. (scanned)

    • Senator Mondale expresses his concern for rural communities if they no longer receive rail service; he submits a selection of news articles concerning the issue of railroad abandonments. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (April 27, 1972): 14733-14736.

    • Senator Mondale discusses the implications of railroad abandonment to rural areas: "I am concerned, not only because of the consequences which would be visited upon the rural people of Minnesota, but also because of the severe threat this abandonment trend would have on all of rural America. How ironic it is that when rural development has finally gained national interest, there are so many forces intent on destroying rural transportation systems. Instead of seeking ways of improving service, railroad companies want to get out of the rural areas. The Federal Government, instead of proposing ways of improving and continuing rail service in rural areas, continues to grant more and more abandonments. Transportation legislation such as the Surface Transportation Act and the administration's Transportation Assistance Act seek to make abandonments of rail service even easier. The wholesale abandonment of railroad lines must stop. Rural out migration will be speeded by loss of these vital transportation arteries;" he submits articles from the Minneapolis Star and the Saint Paul Pioneer Press discussing the issue of railroad abandonment. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (May 17, 1972): 17678-17679.

    • Senator Mondale submits an analysis of the Nixon administration's goals in urban affairs: "I suggest that this article ... should be closely read by all who are concerned about our national policy toward cities and urban areas." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (May 23, 1972): 18428-18434.

    • Senator Mondale accuses the Nixon administration of attempting "to weaken this Nation's commitment to social and economic justice" and cites the administration's actions against the Legal Services Program as a prime example; he submits an article by David S. Broder of The Washington Post discussing the importance of the Legal Services Program. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (February 26, 1973): 5299-5300.

    • Senator Mondale states: "The activities of Howard Phillips [Acting Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity] will not allow the legal services program to survive much longer. We need action within weeks, not months, if disaster in this program is to be averted." He submits an article from the Minneapolis Star discussing the need for action to save the Legal Services Program. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (February 28, 1973): 5824-5825.

    • Senator Mondale submits a summary of the American Institute of Architects National Policy Task Force's intensive study of urban growth: "In brief, the policies recommended by this task force would change the 'ground rules' that now shape, and distort the shape, of American communities. These new policies would help create a fresh and useful scale for planning and building in urban areas, and commit the Nation to a major land acquisition policy to guide development in and around key urban centers. These recommendations are of broad scope and will require public debate and discussion. This discussion should begin now, however, for as a Nation we have no time to lose in the fight to save our urban environments from continued unplanned growth, which in the long run can only damage our national spirit and impede our long-range development." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (February 28, 1973): 5813-5814.

    • Senator Mondale submits a Minneapolis Tribune article discussing the implications of the phasing out of community mental health centers by the Nixon administration. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (March 26, 1973): 9417-9418.

    • Senator Mondale submits a Minneapolis Tribune article discussing the implications of the phasing out of community mental health centers by the Nixon administration: "We face heartbreaking and frustrating problems in dealing with mental illness in this country. We know that there is a correlation between mental illness and poverty. We know there are thousands of children whose emotional or mental handicaps are going undetected until they have become a major deterrent to learning and to functioning in our society. We know that the use of drugs and the rate of suicide among young people have skyrocketed in recent years. And now the administration has decided to phase out the community mental health centers program, which I believe holds great promise for solving some of these problems which our society has only begun to confront." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (March 26, 1973): 9417-9418.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article describing the effects cuts in social services would have on a 4-year-old girl in Minneapolis: "We [senators] have tried to emphasize the severe and tragic impact these regulations would have on individuals currently benefiting from day care programs, alcohol and drug abuse programs, day activity centers for the retarded and other programs currently made possible through Social Services. It is one thing to talk in Washington about the statistics involved, but it is quite another to see first-hand the individuals who needs these programs so desperately." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (March 28, 1973): 9968-9969.

    • Senator Mondale decries the end of the national regional medical program without Congressional approval as "yet another example of the administration's lawless disregard for the constitutional responsibilities of the Congress;" he submits an article on the Northlands Regional Medical Program. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (March 28, 1973): 9960.

    • Senator Mondale submits an editorial by James J. Kilpatrick discussing the need for the Legal Services Program. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (April 12, 1973): 12149-12150.

    • Senator Mondale submits a paper by Pamela Haddy Kacser, advisor in the Bureau of Labor Statistics, entitled "A Progress Report on Social Indicators—In the United States and Internationally." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (April 17, 1973): 12682-12684.

    • Representative Fraser (D-MN) submits an article by Finlay Lewis discussing the welfare-dependency incentive created by the new social service income eligibility standards; Senator Mondale produced figures in a Senate Finance Committee hearing showing how in some instances welfare recipients could do better on welfare than at work. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (May 17, 1973): 16152-16154.

    • Senator Mondale submits a speech by Senator Nelson (D-WI) to the Comprehensive Health Planning Agency of Wisconsin in which he stresses the need for stronger health planning in order to meet increasing demand. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (May 30, 1973): 17284-17286.

    • Senator Mondale discusses the need for rail service to rural communities; he submits an article from the Mankato Free Press (MN) discussing the need for government action to stop the abandonment of rail service to rural communities. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (July 24, 1973): 25632-25633.

    • Senator Mondale states: "Urgent action is needed to prevent costly bottlenecks in the immediate months ahead, but we must also take long range steps to assure that our Nation is served by a fully adequate rural transportation system;" he submits an article in Construction News entitled "The Real Transportation Crisis," analyzing America's rural transportation system and its inadequacies. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (July 31, 1973): 26816-26818.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article discussing the implications of the loss of rail service between five rural Minnesota communities: "A loss of rail service would result in extremely high costs to local communities. For example, it would cost an estimated $8 million to upgrade local highways to a 9-ton carrying capacity. In contrast, railroad officials estimate that $2 million would be required to replace rail ties and to make other improvements to continue rail operations." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (December 3, 1973): 39152-39153.

    • Senator Mondale submits the testimony of Walter Heller and Arthur Okun, former Chairs of the Council of Economic Advisers, to the Senate Finance Committee. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (March 20, 1974): 7448-7452.

    • Senator Mondale submits an editorial from the St. Paul Pioneer Press discussing S. 3438, the rural rail preservation bill he and Senators Humphrey (D-MN), Schweiker (R-PA), and Clark (D-IA) introduced. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (May 30, 1974): 16996-16997.

    • Senator Mondale submits an article from The New York Times entitled "The War on Poverty: 10 Years Later," assessing the impact of the Economic Opportunity Act: "These 10 years have been difficult ones in the fight to give the poor the rights which others in our society have long enjoyed. In particular, the past 5 years have seen one attempt after another to cripple and even destroy the progress which had been made during the mid-1960's. Yet, as Mr. Wilkins states, the legacy of the antipoverty program is real—'the poor are a little stronger, considerably more self-aware, and somewhat more self-sufficient.'" 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (June 19, 1974): 19956.

    • Senator Mondale submits a moving article about "the special kind of suffering that poverty causes to children and their parents." 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (July 24, 1975): 24649-24650.

U.S. Senate hearings on public welfare in which Senator Mondale participated: [Top]
  • Public Works and Economic Development: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Banking and Currenty, 89th Cong. (1965).

  • Housing Legislation of 1966: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Banking and Currency, 89th Cong. (1966).

  • Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act [Seminar]: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Government Research, pt. 1, 90th Cong. (1967).

  • Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Government Research, pt. 2, 90th Cong. (1967).

  • Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Government Research, pt. 3, 90th Cong. (1967).

  • Housing Legislation of 1967: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs, pt. 1, 90th Cong. (1967).

  • Housing and Urban Development Bills and Proposals: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs, 90th Cong. (1968).

  • Nutrition and Human Needs: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, pt. 1 90th Cong. (1968).

  • Nutrition and Human Needs: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, pt. 2 90th Cong. (1968).

  • Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1969: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty, 91st Cong. (1969).

  • Closing of Job Corps Centers: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty, 91st Cong. (1969).

  • Legal Services Program of the Office of Economic Opportunity: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty, 91st Cong. (1969).

  • Manpower Development and Training Legislation, 1970: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty, pt. 1, 91st Cong. (1969 and 1970).

  • Full Opportunity Act: Hearings Before the Special Subcommittee on Evaluation and Planning of Social Programs, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Legal Services Program of the Office of Economic Opportunity: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty, pt. 4 92nd Cong. (1971).

  • Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty, pt. 5 92nd Cong. (1971).

  • Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities Act: Hearing Before the Special Subcommittee on Evaluation and Planning of Social Programs, 92nd Cong. (1971).

  • 1971 Housing and Urban Development Legislation: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs, pt. 2, 92nd Cong. (1971).

  • Physicians Training Facilities and Health Maintenance Organizations: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Health, pt. 2, 92 Cong. (1971).

  • Comprehensive Manpower Reform, 1972: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower and Poverty, pt. 1, 92nd Cong. (1972).

  • National Heart, Blood Vessel, Lung, and Blood Act of 1972: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Health, 92nd Cong. (1972).

  • Social Services Regulations: Hearings Before the Committee on Finance, pt. 1, 93rd Cong. (1973).

  • Social Services Regulations: Hearings Before the Committee on Finance, pt. 2, 93rd Cong. (1973).

  • Supplemental Security Income Program: Hearing Before the Committee on Finance, 93rd Cong. (1973).

  • Child Support and the Work Bonus: Hearing Before the Committee on Finance, 93rd Cong. (1973).

  • Proposals to Increase the Income Tax Personal Exemption: Hearings Before the Committee on Finance, 93rd Cong. (1974).

  • $495 Billion Debt Limit: Hearing Before the Committee on Finance, 93rd Cong. (1974).

  • Emergency Housing and Housing/Energy: Hearings Before the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Antirecession Tax Cut: Hearings Before the Committee on Finance, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Nominations: Hearings Before the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Tax Reform Act of 1975: Hearings Before the Committee on Finance, 94th Cong. (1975).

  • Certain Committee Amendments to H.R. 10612: Hearings Before the Committee on Finance, pt. 2, 94th Cong. (1976).

Selected Senate committee prints and reports on public welfare: [Top]

    Committee Prints

  • Staff of Subcom. on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty, 91st Cong., Legal Services Program under the Office of Economic Opportunity, pt. 1 (Comm. Print 1970).

  • Staff of Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, 92nd Cong., Background Material on Proposed Extension of the Economic Opportunity Act (Comm. Print 1971).

  • Staff of Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, 92nd Cong., Reform of Federally Funded Manpower Training Programs, Background Material (Comm. Print 1971).

  • Staff of Comm. on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, 92nd Cong., Housing and Urban Development Act of 1972 (Comm. Print 1972).

  • Staff of Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, 92nd Cong., Community Manpower Training and Employment Act of 1972 (Comm. Print 1972).

  • Staff of Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, 92nd Cong., Emergency Employment Act, an Interim Assessment (Comm. Print 1972).

  • Staff of Comm. on Finance, 93rd Cong., H.R. 3153, Social Security Amendments of 1973 (Comm. Print 1973).

  • Staff of Comm. on Finance, 93rd Cong., H.R. 17045, Social Services Amendments of 1974 (Comm. Print 1974).

  • Staffs of the Senate Comm. on Finance and the House Comm. on Ways and Means, 93rd Cong., Social Services and Child Support. Summary of the Provisions of H.R. 17045 (Comm. Print 1974).

  • Staff of Comm. on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, 94th Cong., Emergency Housing Act of 1975: Section-By-Section Summary of H.R. 4485, As Passed by the Senate (Comm. Print 1975).

  • Committee Reports

  • Comm. on Labor and Human Resources, Full Opportunity Act, S. Rep. No. 91-998 (1970).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Employment and Training Opportunities Act of 1970, S. Rep. No. 91-1136 (1970).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971, S. Rep. No. 92-331 (1971).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971, S. Rep. No. 92-523 (1971).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, National Heart, Blood Vessel, Lung, and Blood Act of 1972, S. Rep. No. 92-733 (1972).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1972, S. Rep. No. 92-792 (1972).

  • Comm. on Labor and Human Resources, Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities Act, S. Rep. No. 92-866 (1972).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1972, S. Rep. No. 92-987 (1972).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1972, S. Rep. No. 92-1086 (1972).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Job Training and Community Services Act of 1973, S. Rep. No. 93-304 (1973).

  • Comm. on Labor and Human Resources, Full Opportunity and National Goals and Priorities Act, S. Rep. No. 93-324 (1973).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Legal Services Corporation Act, S. Rep. No. 93-495 (1973).

  • Comm. on Finance, Social Security Amendments of 1973, S. Rep. No. 93-553 (1973).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Legal Services Corporation Act of 1974, S. Rep. No. 93-845 (1974).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Legal Services Corporation Act of 1974, S. Rep. No. 93-1039 (1974).

  • Comm. on Finance, Social Security Amendments of 1974, S. Rep. No. 93-1356 (1974).

  • Comm. on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Emergency Homeowners' Relief Act, S. Rep. No. 94-78 (1975).

  • Comm. on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Emergency Housing Act of 1975, S. Rep. No. 94-161 (1975).

  • Congressional Research Service Reports

  • Ellen Zachariasen, Cong. Research Serv., 69-182 ED, Poverty in the United States, 1968-1969: Selected References (1969).

  • Ellen Zachariasen, Cong. Research Serv., 69-198 ED, Office of Economic Opportunity in 1969: A Chronology of Events (1969).

  • Ellen Zachariasen, Cong. Research Serv., 70-266 ED, Poverty in the United States, 1969-1970: Selected References (1970).

  • Stuart Schmitz, Cong. Research Serv., 75-256 ED, Legal Services Corporation: Legislative Background and Program Operation (1975).

  • Documents

  • Employment and Manpower Act of 1970: Veto Message, Message from the President S. Doc. 91-118 (1970).

  • Veto Message: Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1971, Message from the President, S. Doc. 92-48 (1971).

  • Veto of the Emergency Housing Act of 1975, H. Doc. 94-199 (1975).


Endnotes:[TOP]
  1. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (June 4, 1974) at 17626.
  2. Child Abuse Prevention Act, 1973: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Children and Youth: To Establish a National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., March 26, 27, 31; April 24, 1973. p. 1.