Introduction
Photo Album
Committee Assignments
American Indian Rights
Children / Education
Civil Rights
Civil Rights / Fair Housing
Consumer Protection
Elderly / Aging
Environment / Conservation
Filibuster / Cloture
Foreign Relations
Government Accountability
Intelligence
Migrant Workers
Public Welfare
Civil Rights
Excerpts from Speeches       Proceedings and Debates       Hearings       Committee prints and reports
Civil Rights March on Washington, 1963;
credit: National Archives and Records Administration

While Senator Mondale's signature contribution to civil rights is fair housing, he was instrumental in advancing work in other areas of civil rights as well. In March 1965—in one of his earliest speeches in the Senate—he condemned the violence and abuse endured by a peaceful group of civil rights protestors.[1]89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (March 8, 1965) at 4350-4352. Several months later, he spoke in response to the 1965 riots in Los Angeles. He addressed the need to immediately restore order, but also to understand the source of the riots: "If we put down the violence while ignoring the conditions which breed violence, then our action today will be but a prelude to greater disasters tomorrow. We must go further, we must attack the seeds of poverty and discrimination which cause such tragedies, if we are not to reap a further harvest of bitterness and shame for America."[2]89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (August 17, 1965) at 20625. Two years later, he and Senator Harris (D-OK) proposed a commission to study civil strife and in 1970 he chaired the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity. As chairman of the committee, Senator Mondale oversaw fifty-one days of hearings that addressed desegregation of public schools and the racial imbalance in urban schools due to de facto segregation and housing discrimination.

Senator Mondale refused to compromise on his beliefs regarding civil rights. When asked if he would yield during a debate on desegregation, Senator Mondale responded, "I will be glad to yield in a minute. I want to get this point home, because I would rather lose my public career than give up on civil rights. For 10 years as attorney general of my State and as a U.S. Senator, I have regarded it as a religious responsibility to treat every man as an equal. And I am offended by racial segregation, wherever it exists."[3]91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 17, 1970) at 3581. Two days later, expressing dismay at the passage of the Stennis amendment, which he believed would slow desegregation, he stated, "I was brought up by my father in a family which believed that everyone was a child of God and was entitled to the dignity that flowed from that concept. I was taught that a man's color was irrelevant. I will continue to press this cause, because unless we can sustain it, the promise of America will be lost."[4]91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 19, 1970) at 4133. And again in that same debate, Senator Mondale declared, "Whatever the politics, I am one of those who believes that there can be no compromise on the issue of human rights, that this is one issue that is worth everything, including one's public office."[5]91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 19, 1970) at 4137.

Senator Mondale was a vocal critic of Richard Nixon's stance on civil rights even before Mr. Nixon was elected to the presidency: "If Mr. Nixon has a chance to practice what he preaches, we are in for more segregation, not less; for poorer education for Negro children, not better; we are in for a backward step, rather than a forward step."[6]90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (September 23, 1968) at 27823. He continued to be critical of the Nixon administration's policies on civil rights: its lack of enforcement of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; its disregard for the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; its contempt for Supreme Court rulings on school desegregation.

His pressure on the administration was relentless. In 1969 Senator Mondale called attention to the fact that the Department of Defense had awarded contracts to three Carolina textile firms that were guilty of discrimination. He was one of five senators who in 1969 wrote a letter to Robert Finch, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, expressing concern over the administration's stand on school desegregation and urging the secretary to implement the desegregation guidelines "firmly and fairly." That same year, he urged Clifford Hardin, the Secretary of Agriculture, "to tell us specifically what steps he intends to take to improve the dismal civil rights record of his Department" before Congress appropriates funds for USDA programs. He adamantly opposed President Nixon's nomination of Judge Harrold Carswell in 1970 to the Supreme Court: "What is unique about Judge Carswell's nomination is that it raises the question of whether a person who has a lifetime record—a personal record as well as a judicial record—of antagonism and hostility to human rights and civil rights, and to the enforcement of the law of the land, and specifically to orders of the circuit court under which he operated, should be permitted to serve on the highest court of the land. I believe that it would be exceedingly unwise and disastrous to do so."[7]91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (March 20, 1970) at 8384. At one point, Senator Mondale denounced the administration's tactics in filibustering a bill on school desegregation: "I think it is an insult to the Senate, an insult to the education subcommittee, and an insult to the relationship that a healthy government needs in trying to deal in this fashion with this most controversial and explosive question of our time—the question of desegregation and integration. I want to work with this administration, but I cannot recall in the 6 years I have been in the Senate seeing an issue dealt with as shabbily as this one has been."[8]91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (December 31, 1970) at 44418.

A public face in the fight for civil rights and school desegregation, Senator Mondale asserted that "it is not a question of what some of us would like to do or not like to do. It is a question of whether we intend to uphold the Constitution. It is a question of whether we believe in ... law and order; a question of whether there are some laws we enforce and some laws we ignore, and some laws we implement and some laws we obstruct."[9]91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 28, 1970) at 5378.

Citing numerous examples of successful school integration, Senator Mondale fully supported the Education Amendments of 1971. When the House introduced "anti-integration" amendments that would prohibit federal funds for transportation to achieve racial balance in schools, he accused it of turning "a hopeful equal education opportunity bill into a school segregation bill." He argued that "the issue is not busing or racial balance. The issue is whether we will build on hopeful examples of successful integration to make school desegregation work—or endorse segregation on principle; whether we will help the courts to avoid educational mistakes—or leave them to face the complexities of school desegregation alone. But beyond that, the issue was, and is, racism. The issue is whether we are going to have as the Kerner Commission warned two societies, one white, and one for the rest of us."[10]92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 18, 1972) at 4577.

Despite his support for many of the programs funded in the Education Amendments of 1971 and his recognition that the bill was "perhaps the single most important education bill ever before Congress," he could not bring himself to support it. He was critical of three amendments left in the bill that would "cripple the capacity of federal courts and agencies to remedy racially discriminatory school segregation under the Constitution and title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964."[11]92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (May 24, 1972) at 18845. He argued that "the freedoms found in the Constitution, the freedoms fundamental to American life, are in a real sense non-compromisable. They are on a different level, a different plateau, and bear a different value from other disputes. I do not think we can compromise the basic human rights even for a magnificent program of higher education such as that embodied here. Therefore, in sorrow, and not in anger, I cannot support the conference report."[12]92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (May 24, 1972) at 18846.

Senator Mondale's core belief in "the freedoms fundamental to American life" led him to cosponsor the Equal Rights Amendment in 1972: "We have made great strides in this country in recent decades toward eliminating the legal basis for discrimination against members of minority groups. But we still have a long way to go to provide the same protection to the majority of our population—the 51 percent who are women.... Discrimination against women is a documented, proven fact in many aspects of American life and a cruel reality that mars the ambitions of untold numbers of American women."[13]92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (March 17, 1972) at 8894. In 1973 he introduced the Women's Educational Equity Act, "seeking to eliminate discrimination in many phases of education."[14]93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (October 2, 1973) at 32484. Two years later he introduced the Women's Vocational Education Amendments which provided "a new and much-needed emphasis on women's roles within the vocational education system," and aimed "to eliminate existing barriers to the full participation of both sexes in vocational education programs."[15]94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (November 3, 1975) at 34668.

Excerpts from Senator Mondale's speeches on civil rights and school desegregation: [Top]

Walter with his father, Theodore, ca. 1936

"I suppose my views are colored in this by my own background. My dad was a Methodist minister. And although we grew up in rural areas, he always taught us the importance of believing in human rights. And I can remember as a young child making my first disparaging remark about a Negro, and he gave me my first lesson in civil rights. I got my pants tanned. And all through my public career I have been of the opinion that human rights are really nonnegotiable, just like free speech."

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking and Currency. Fair Housing Act of 1967: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs. 90th Cong., 1st sess., August 21, 22, and 23, 1967.

"I believe that this Nation is as sick as it has ever been. I believe that one of the first and necessary steps to its cure is an understanding of the vast character of the problem that lies ahead of us. It literally involves the remaking of our Nation. Unless we understand that, unless we approach it with that in mind, I fear that all our remedies will fall far short of the mark....

This effort will require the best that everyone in society can provide, the best of the private and the public sectors, the best of local and State governments, the best of private foundations, unions, cooperatives, churches, and all of the other organizations and sectors of American society.

We have now begun to pay the price of at least a winter of social neglect. The answer cannot be simply found in the suppression of the riots as important and indispensable as that is because, as the Washington Post editorial stated this morning: The question is whether a nation of free men can achieve order and social justice as well." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (July 25, 1967) at 20200.


Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. , 1963; credit: National Archives and Records Administration

"We should remember that the law, in addition to being a coercive force, must function as well as a teacher. By directing the actions of the citizen, it must produce a change in attitude. Without a change in public attitude, all the legislation in the world cannot guarantee racial equality. Up to now, we have accomplished the legal abolition of the practices of segregation, and we have obtained a grudging tolerance, a lowering of formal legal barriers, a removal of 'white only' signs from drinking fountains, school doors, and waiting rooms. We must do more than achieve minimum compliance with the law, motivated more by the fear of jails than by an honest request for one's fellow man. While this is necessary and worthy of our first efforts, it is merely an initial goal.

Beyond this lies the true meaning of 'integration.' Beyond this lies acceptance-acceptance of every fellow citizen as a man with heart and mind, body and soul. This goal may remain unreached when every lunch counter in the Nation has dropped its formal barriers to Negro entry.

It may remain unreached when every Negro is allowed the full and equal right to vote and participate in the political process of his State and city. It may, as well, remain unreached when the last Negro has stepped off the sidewalk and tipped his hat to the passing white man. But we must begin now to reach the day when we have a nation in which every man is accepted at his own worth." 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (August 10, 1965) at 19760.


Martin Luther King, Jr., 1964; credit: U.S. News & World Report magazine collection, Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress

"More than any other man in this Nation's history Martin Luther King brought the Negro to America's conscience. He became the visible of the invisible men. It took a man of unquestioned courage and conviction, a man of irreproachable character, a man of unmatched eloquence, a man of God to first confront us with the racism and repression in our own country.

Martin Luther King led his people to new self-respect. Like Moses, he was a man with a vision of the promised land. Moses at the close of his life stood on a mountaintop and looked upon the better land he had envisioned. To Moses, scripture says, the Lord spoke, saying:

I have let you see it with your own eyes,
but you shall not go over there.

Alluding to these words two nights ago in Memphis, King spoke:

It doesn't matter with me because I've been to the mountain top . . .
I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the promised land.

Martin Luther King died in his fight to make men free. The foremost proponent of a nonviolent confrontation between the races is dead. His generosity to the white man, his belief in the basic good will of all men, and his dramatic, nonviolent action enabled him to speak to both races." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 114 (April 5, 1968) at 9138.


NAACP members picketing outside Woolworth's for integrated lunch counters, St. Paul., 1960; credit: Minnesota Historical Society

 

 

 

"I would rather lose my public career than give up on civil rights.

For 10 years as attorney general of my State and as a U.S. Senator, I have regarded it as a religious responsibility to treat every man as an equal. And I am offended by racial segregation, wherever it exists." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 17, 1970) at 3581.

"Whatever the politics, I am one of those who believes that there can be no compromise on the issue of human rights, that this is one issue that is worth everything, including one's public office." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 19, 1970) at 4137.


Senator Walter Mondale appears on the television program Meet the Press with fellow Senators Abraham Ribicoff of Connecticut and Herman Talmadge of Georgia, 1970; credit: Minnesota Historical Society
"I hope and believe this is a country in which we seek to live together as Americans, rather than to be divided on the utterly irrelevant, disruptive, and undemocratic grounds of race and color.

I do not know what the politics of human rights is today. I suspect it is less popular than it has been for many years.

I sense a feeling of agony, frustration, and despair which generates a sense of antagonism and separatism that we have not seen in this country for a long time.

I do not know where it will take us. But I do know this. I in no way intend to reduce my efforts or my commitments to the cause of a country in which color is irrelevant. I do not think we can have a democracy that is not color blind.

I was brought up by my father in a family which believed that everyone was a child of God and was entitled to the dignity that flowed from that concept. I was taught that a man's color was irrelevant.

I will continue to press this cause, because unless we can sustain it, the promise of America will be lost." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 19, 1970) at 4133.


Senator Walter Mondale meets with civil rights advocate and politician Charles Evers., 1971; credit: Minnesota Historical Society

 

"I think that we had so many tragic efforts in national education policy that it is terribly important, particularly as it affects race, that we use this opportunity to define it in a precise way which endorses a national objective of quality integration. In other words, that we agree, as Americans, that we are going to begin to be educated together, live together, and treat one another as equals and that is our objective, rather than a negative sort of body mixing."

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Emergency School Aid Act of 1970: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., June 9, 1970. p. 54.


Rally at state capitol, protesting the integration of Central High School, Little Rock, AK, 1959; credit: U.S. News & World Report magazine collection, Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress

 

 

"Mr. President, for nearly 2 years, I have served the Senate as Chairman of the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity. It has been a painful 2 years for me, and I believe for other members of the committee as well. We have heard almost 300 witnesses on the issues which the Senate confronts today. And we have learned a great deal about success and failure in American public education.

We have tried to look deeply into the workings of public education in all parts of this country. We have not concentrated on the South by any means.

And, I am left with a deep conviction—that American education is failing children who are born black, brown, or simply poor." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 18, 1972) at 4574.


 

"A generation of American girls is growing up reading biased textbooks; being guided by counselors who often label particular careers as either 'masculine' or 'feminine'; receiving less than their share of physical education because it is generally thought to be more appropriate and necessary for boys." 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (October 2, 1973) at 32484.


"A large portion of my career in the Senate has been devoted to the study of education and to attempts to improve the system and make its benefits accessible to all Americans.

In the 1960s—many years too late—we finally became aware as a Nation of the failure of our educational system to serve the disadvantaged child, the migrant child, the Indian child living on a reservation, the black and Chicano children in inner city ghettos and isolated rural areas.

In the Congress, in the executive branch, and in the education establishment, momentum developed for the creation of new programs that would provide all of these children with the opportunity for a decent education....

So it has been an unsettling experience for many of us to learn—as a result of the work done in recent years by the women's movement—that for years the educational system has actually been discriminating against the majority of our population—women."

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Women's Educational Equity Act of 1973: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., October 17 and November 9, 1973. p. 1-2.

Selected U.S. Senate proceedings and debates on civil rights and school desegregation, 1965-1976: [Top]
    School Desegregation and Transportation Women's Rights
    Equal Opportunity General Civil Rights
    Civil Strife Speeches & Publications Submitted


    School Desegregation and Transportation
    • Senator Mondale expresses concern about candidate Richard Nixon's stance on school desegregation: "If Mr. Nixon has a chance to practice what he preaches, we are in for more segregation, not less; for poorer education for Negro children, not better; we are in for a backward step, rather than a forward step." 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (September 23, 1968): 27823-27824.

    • Senator Mondale expresses concern over the handling of school desegregation by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (January 31, 1969): 2408-2409.

    • Senator Mondale expresses concern about a U.S. News & World Report interview with Robert Finch, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare: "The tone of this interview is very defensive--almost as if the Secretary has been handed a program in which he has very little enthusiasm but which he will reluctantly administer because he is forced to do so by acts of Congress and decisions of the courts. One would like to believe that the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare would enthusiastically embrace this program, which, after all, is designed to help assure equality of educational opportunity for all American youngsters....I wish the Secretary would recognize--if he has not--the fact that black children are being cheated of their right to an equal education and focus upon this national disgrace instead of apologizing for why he must administer the title VI program. It is, after all, almost 15 years since the Supreme Court ruled that the dual, racially segregated school system is unconstitutional. And it's almost 5 years since the adoption of Title VI as part of the Civil Rights Act declaring that Federal funds should not be used to support programs or activities which discriminate on the basis of race, color, or national origin." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 13, 1969): 6435-6436.

    • Senator Mondale is one of five senators who wrote a letter to Robert Finch, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, expressing concern over the administration's stand on school desegregation. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (April 3, 1969): 8664.

    • Senator Mondale submits his statement criticizing the Nixon administration's consideration to soften the school desegregation guidelines: "At a time when we hear great cries for easing spending in our domestic programs, great talk of inflation, and see the slashes in budgets of our domestic programs, the least this administration can do is to enforce existing laws where no great outlays of money are required. To do less is to do nothing. To do less is to subvert the law. To do less is to encourage bitterness. To do less is to rob tens of thousands of black and white school children in the South of an opportunity to have a decent, good, integrated education and to learn together in preparing for this country's future." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (June 25, 1969): 17261-17262.

    • Senator Mondale expresses dismay at a recent joint statement by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and the Attorney General that indicated a relaxation in enforcing guidelines for desegregation. 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (July 9, 1969): 18875-18876.

    • Discussion of Senator Stennis' (D-MS) Amendment No. 481 and No. 463 to H.R. 514, the Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1969 (reported to the Senate in January from the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare). Amendment 481 halts federal efforts to enforce desegregation, and Amendment 463 enforces uniform school desegregation throughout the country. Senator Ribicoff (D-CT) opposes No. 481, but supports No. 463, stating that "the North is guilty of monumental hypocrisy in its treatment of the black man." Senator Mondale addresses Senator Ribicoff's support of Amendment No. 463 and voices his own opposition to the amendments: "All of these amendments deal with the subject of school desegregation. They contradict decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court in this field. It appears that they are designed to cripple the school desegregation program, severely restrict the authority of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and weaken existing protections under the 14th amendment of the Constitution. In short, these amendments appear to be designed to compromise our country's commitment to human rights." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 9, 1970): 2903-2938.

    • Senator Mondale speaks against Senator Stennis' (D-MS) Amendment No. 463 calling it "ambiguous at best" and possibly "meaningless" or "mischievous;" he and Senator Javits (D-NY) offer a substitute amendment to No. 463 "which would which would create a Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity to be charged with the responsibility to study and make recommendations concerning the problems related to de facto segregation of the schools." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 10, 1970): 3025-3026.

    • Senator Mondale submits a modified amendment of No. 490 to H.R. 514. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 16, 1970): 3437-3438.

    • Senator Mondale argues that Senator Stennis' (D-MS) Amendment No. 463 "will grant the South an important new weapon to slow down the process, to frustrate the Supreme Court.... The amendment offered by the Senator from Mississippi would do nothing about de facto segregation. Its sole and obvious and clear purpose is to paralyze and hamper the efforts to eliminate the dual school systems wherever they exist." In a heated debate, Senator Mondale calls the amendment a "hoax" to which Senator Stennis replies "I ask him to be careful in his words. Do not accuse a man of putting something in here that is a pure hoax unless you listen to the debate and make as many inquiries as the author of the amendment about the conditions in the South, where I doubt you know very much about it firsthand, or in the North, outside of your own region." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 17, 1970): 3573-3603. (Mondale at 3581)

    • Senator Mondale submits Senate Resolution 359, creating a Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 18, 1970): 3753.

    • Senator Mondale argues in favor of an amendment introduced by Senator Scott (D-PA): "The Scott amendment eliminates from the Stennis amendment that part which could be used to block and imperil the elimination of official de jure discrimination wherever it is found. The Scott amendment would assure that we continue to make progress in that area." Again a heated debate, lines are often drawn between northern and southern states. At one point, Senator Allen (D-AL) says, "Well, Mr. President, let me express my appreciation to the distinguished Senator from Minnesota for his lengthy nonanswer to my question." The Scott amendment is rejected and the Stennis amendment is agreed to. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 18, 1970): 3779-3800.

    • Senator Mondale introduces Amendment No. 499 to H.R. 514, creating a Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity "to study and make recommendations concerning the problems related to de facto segregation in the schools." Following Senator Byrd's (D-WV) suggestion, Senator Mondale changes his amendment to Senate Resolution 359. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 18, 1970): 3801-3809, 3812.

    • Further debate on H.R. 514, Senate Resolution 359 and other amendments, including an amendment on busing. Senator Mondale states "Whatever the politics, I am one of those who believes that there can be no compromise on the issue of human rights, that this is one issue that is worth everything, including one's public office." Resolution 359 is agreed to and H.R. 514 is passed. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 19, 1970): 4132-4172.

    • Senator Kennedy (D-MA) submits Senate Resolution 361, the majority party's senators on the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity. Senator Mondale is assigned to the committee. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 25, 1970): 4877.

    • Contentious debate on an amendment proposed by Senator Mathias (R-MD) to H.R. 15931 (an appropriations bill dealing with school integregation introduced in February by Representative Flood, D-PA, and reported from the Committee on Appropriations); Senator Mondale argues that "the biggest busing requirement arises when we seek to sort children out on the basis of color" and that the opposing amendments offered by Representatives Whitten (D-MS) and Jonas (R-NC) are unconstitutional: "The truth of it is that the Supreme Court has repeatedly held that official discrimination in the assignment of students to public schools is a violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment of the Constitution. It is not a question of what some of us would like to do or not like to do. It is a question of whether we intend to uphold the Constitution. It is a question of whether we believe in—if I may use the term—law and order; a question of whether there are some laws we enforce and some laws we ignore, and some laws we implement and some laws we obstruct." H.R. 15931 is passed and becomes Public Law 91-204. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 28, 1970): 5375-5439. (Mondale at 5378)

    • Senator Byrd (D-VA) submits the transcript of a "Meet the Press" broadcast in which Senators Mondale, Ribicoff (D-CT) and Talmadge (D-GA) discuss the problem of school integration. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (March 2, 1970): 5549-5552.

    • The Senate debates the conference report on H.R. 514; the two Houses disagree on extending programs of assistance to elementary and secondary school programs; includes a statement by President Nixon of his position on school desegregation; Senator Mondale provides a summary of the debate between the two Houses leading to the conference report. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (March 24, 1970): 8877-8899. (Mondale at 8882)

    • Senator Mondale discusses his support of the elementary and secondary education conference report (H.R. 514) and the importance for the Stennis amendment to be rejected by not recommitting the conference report: "If we believe in justice, if we believe in a nation which pursues and supports the law of the land, then we must pursue an enforcement policy that supports the laws as determined by the U.S. Supreme Court and as found in our Constitution;" the Senate rejects the motion to recommit the conference report; the conference report is agreed to. H.R. 514 becomes Public Law 91-230 in April. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (April 1, 1970): 10012-10020.

    • Senator Mondale criticizes President Nixon's "lack of firm direction" on school desegregation; he provides several examples of contradictions in administration policy and argues that, "Perhaps the greatest weakness of the message is its unwillingness to acknowledge the relationship between equal educational opportunity and school desegregation." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (April 16, 1970): 12186-12188.

    • Senator Mondale submits amendment nos. 702-704 to H.R. 17399, the second supplemental appropriations bill for civil rights dealing with school desegregation (introduced in May by Representative Mahon, D-TX); "These amendments, coupled with the administration's commitments to prevent abuses, can help assure that funds under this appropriation are granted to districts which are making honest efforts to desegregate their schools under legal requirement, regardless of their location." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (June 16, 1970): 19930-19931.

    • Further debate on H.R. 17399; Senator Mondale calls up his amendments 702-704 for consideration; all concern appropriations for desegregation. Senator Mondale's amendments are agreed to. H.R. 17399 is passed and becomes Public Law 91-305 in July. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (June 22, 1970): 20799-20818. (Mondale at 20805)

    • Discussion of H.R. 16916, for education appropriations (introduced in April by Representative Flood, D-PA); Senator Mondale speaks against an amendment proposed by Representative Jonas (R-NC), arguing that it "ignores court decisions and seeks to impose a financial penalty on a school district that is carrying out its constitutional obligations to desegregate." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (June 23, 1970): 21010-21015. (Mondale at 21010)

    • Further consideration of H.R. 16916; supporting arguments for the Jonas, Whitten, and Stennis amendments; Senator Mondale speaks in favor of eliminating the Whitten amendments. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (June 24, 1970): 21208-21218. (Mondale at 21215)

    • Senator Javits (R-NY) introduces Amendment No. 737 to H.R. 16916; the amendment seeks to add $150 million to the appropriations bill and includes the three amendments (702-704) that Senator Mondale introduced earlier; Senator Mondale continues to make his argument that desegregation should be a national initiative and not just focused on the southern states; he announces his support for Senator Javits' amendment. Senator Javits' amendment is agreed to. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (June 25, 1970): 21459-21496. (Mondale at 21479)

    • Representative Watson (R-SC) has scathing remarks regarding hearings held by the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, accusing Senator Mondale of having a "self righteous, hypocritical double standard... in dealing with social problems of which [he] knows nothing." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (July 23, 1970): 25644.

    • Senator Mondale reluctantly supports the conference report H.R. 16916, the Office of Education Appropriations bill; he's pleased that the "Jonas amendment" has been kept out of the report, but disappointed that the "Whitten amendments" have been included. The conference report is agreed to. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (July 28, 1970): 26190-26215. (Mondale at 26202)

    • Representative Watson (R-SC) criticizes Senator Mondale's visit to four communities in southern states, likening it to "someone from the South going to the Senator's home state for a few days, and not finding any Negroes in four randomly selected communities of that state, deciding that Minnesota has outlawed integration." He says that the hearings conducted by Senator Mondale's Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity are "a charade and a sham." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (July 30, 1970): 26542-26543.

    • Senator Allen (D-AL) criticizes the failure of the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity's to file its report on de facto segregation on time and Mondale's visit to Alabama to study the issue. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (August 4, 1970): 27223-27226.

    • President Nixon's veto message of H.R. 16916. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (August 11, 1970): 28170-28171

    • Senator Bayh (D-IN) submits the transcript from a "Face the Nation" program in which Senator Mondale discusses the value of school integration. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (August 12, 1970): 28424-28427.

    • The Senate reconsiders H.R. 16916 after President Nixon vetoes it and the House overrides his veto; Senator Mondale calls the veto "politically inspired" and argues that "The President is attempting to make it look as if a 'spend-thrift Democratic Congress' is causing inflation.... I do not believe in playing politics with education. I urge my colleagues to reject the President's veto and to join in the campaign for economies in other areas." The senate overrides the President's veto and the bill becomes Public Law 91-380. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (August 11, 1970): 28170-28171 (veto message from President) and (August 18, 1970): 29318-29391. (Mondale at 29386)

    • Senator Ribicoff (D-CT) introduces S. 4545 and S. 4546, bills that "attack the problem of racial isolation on a nationwide basis. These bills must be considered together, because the integration of public education can only be successful as long as it reflects the underlying integration of society." Senator Mondale speaks in favor of the bills: "We do not have a uniform national policy on school integration today. The Constitution must be equally enforced, in the North and West as well as the South. The Congress must take the lead and declare it to be our Nation's policy that every child will have the opportunity to attend a school which will provide the best possible education and that quality integrated education is the best way to provide that opportunity." S. 4545 is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare and S. 4546 to the Committee on Banking and Currency. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (November 30, 1970): 39113-39123. (Mondale at 39118)

    • Senator Mondale criticizes the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare for failing to "correct noncompliance" of local educational agencies in school desegregation and expresses hope that money appropriated through the Emergency School Assistance Act, H.R. 19446, "could be invested in a nationwide educational program to explore, on a voluntary basis, North and South, the most helpful techniques for achieving quality integrated education in public schools." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (December 29, 1970): 43955-43968.

    • Senator Mondale is angry at the administration's tactics in filibustering a bill on school desegregation: "I think it is an insult to the Senate, an insult to the education subcommittee, and an insult to the relationship that a healthy government needs in trying to deal in this fashion with this most controversial and explosive question of our time--the question of desegregation and integration. I want to work with this administration, but I cannot recall in the 6 years I have been in the Senate seeing an issue dealt with as shabbily as this one has been." 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (December 31, 1970): 44417-44419.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 683, the Quality Integrated Education Act of 1971, "to provide financial assistance for the establishment and maintenance of stable, quality, integrated education in elementary and secondary schools." The bill is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (February 9, 1971): 2176-2185.

    • Debate on S. 1557, the Emergency School Aid and Quality Integrated Education Act of 1971 (introduced in April by Senator Pell, D-RI); Senator Mondale speaks on the importance of school integration: "This is no time for a national policy of retreat. It is time to move forward with nationwide enforcement of the Constitution and Title VI, and with a national program of financial assistance for quality education in integrated schools.... What this legislation proposes to do, for the first time, is to provide financial incentives for integrated education. It asks that this country focus on what is best for school children. If our attentions are diverted from this issue, we shall be doing a disservice to the school children of America." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (April 19, 1971): 10745-10784. (Mondale at 10749)

    • Further consideration of S. 1557, including debate on Senator Ribicoff's (D-CT) amendment that requires state and local educational agencies in metropolitan areas to develop and implement plans for integration. The vote to table the Ribicoff amendment is rejected. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (April 20, 1971): 10945-10963. (Mondale at 10956)

    • Further consideration of S. 1557 and Senator Ribicoff's (D-CT) amendment. The Ribicoff amendment is rejected. Senator Mondale pays tribute to Senator Javits (R-NY) and his leadership in bringing both sides of the aisle together to create S. 1557. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (April 21, 1971): 11325-11332.

    • Further consideration of S. 1557, the Emergency School Aid and Quality Integrated Education Act of 1971. Mondale argues in favor of the bill: "We can pass this wonderful law, and unless we at the same time do something to assure its enforcement--not to impose greater control on anyone, but to see that the things we have decided should be done are, in fact, done--we are talking about law enforcement--unless we do that, I think all history predicts that we will be frustrated once again." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (April 21, 1971): 11338-11347. (Mondale at 11339)

    • Further consideration of S. 1557. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (April 22, 1971): 11511-11529.

    • Senator Ervin (D-NC) introduces an amendment to S. 1557, that would enable schools to divide children based on ability; Senator Mondale argues against this amendment, claiming that "ability grouping" is just another way to segregate based on race where "The white class was the bright class, and the black class was the dumb class. If anything, this kind of discrimination is more insidious, more insulting, and more discriminating than the old kind of discrimination, which just recognized that children were to be separated on the basis of race." 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (April 23, 1971): 11726-11730.

    • Further consideration of S. 1557, including several amendments proposed by Senator Ervin (D-NC). Senator Mondale opposes Senator Ervin's amendments. The debate is often interrupted by disturbances in the visitors' gallery. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (April 26, 1971): 11990-12012.

    • Final debate on S. 1557 and various amendments. The bill is passed. It is referred to the House Committee on Education and Labor. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (April 26, 1971): 12015-12025.

    • Senator Mondale expresses concern that the administration's request to extend the emergency school assistance program will jeopardize the enactment of legislation in support of school integration. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 117 (June 29, 1971): 22703-22704.

    • Senator Mondale argues in favor of S. 659, The Education Amendments of 1971 (reported from the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare in February): "School desegregation is a fact of American educational life. The law of the land is clear, and it will not change. Officially imposed school segregation—whether the result of State law or covert policy—must be overcome." He accuses the House of turning "a hopeful equal education opportunity bill into a school segregation bill" and he argues that "The issue is not busing or racial balance. The issue is whether we will build on hopeful examples of successful integration to make school desegregation work—or endorse segregation on principle; whether we will help the courts to avoid educational mistakes—or leave them to face the complexities of school desegregation alone. But beyond that, the issue was, and is, racism. The issue is whether we are going to have as the Kerner Commission warned two societies, one white, and one for the rest of us." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 18, 1972): 4573-4578.

    • Senator Mondale introduces a "perfecting amendment" to S. 659 that "is intended to insure that the pending bill [S. 659] is administered on a nonsectional, uniform basis throughout the country." He argues against an amendment proposed by Senator Griffin (R-MI), calling it "unconstitutional" and "highly destructive." An amendment proposed by Senators Scott (D-PA) and Mansfield (D-MT) is agreed to, providing funding for school districts that are trying to integrate. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 24, 1972): 5476-5490.

    • Debate on Senator Mondale's amendment to S. 659 and an amendment introduced by Senator Griffin (R-MI) that amends Senator Mondale's amendment. Senator Mondale argues against the Griffin amendment: "Amendment No. 915 seeks to deprive Federal courts and agencies of all power to require transportation of students in order to eliminate racially discriminatory school assignment policies. This amendment is unconstitutional. And it attempts to protect racial discrimination of the clearest sort." Senator Griffin's amendment is agreed to. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 25, 1972): 5666-5687.

    • Senator Mondale argues against the Griffin amendment, urging his colleagues to reject it when voting the following day: "In my view there is not a dime's worth of difference between the Griffin amendment and the position taken by George Wallace." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 28, 1972): 5791-5802. (Mondale at 5801)

    • Debate on amendments to S. 659, primarily focusing on the opposing Scott-Mansfield and Griffin amendments. Close votes on various amendments; Senator Mondale is forced to vote against his own amendment because the Griffin amendment is attached to it. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 29, 1972): 5961-5982.

    • New amendments to S. 659 are debated. The primary topics of the amendments pertain to busing students to create integrated schools and the rights of courts to mandate desegregation. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 29, 1972): 5982-6007.

    • New amendments to S. 659 are debated. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (March 1, 1972): 6253-6277.

    • Senator Mondale is unable to support the conference report for S. 659, the Education Amendments of 1971, despite the many important programs the report includes, because of three amendments left in the report that would "cripple the capacity of Federal courts and agencies to remedy racially discriminatory school segregation under the Constitution and title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964." The conference report is agreed to. The bill is signed into law in June and becomes Public Law 92-318. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (May 24, 1972): 18842-18863.

    • Senator Mondale argues against H.R. 13915, the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1972 (introduced in March by Representative McCulloch, R-OH), claiming that it will "overturn the 14th amendment," that it pits "Congress against the courts," and that it "opposes the Constitution." He questions the timing of the bill, wondering why such a "complex measure" that "deals with one of the great constitutional issues of our time" is coming before the Senate in its "closing days of the session, without even the benefit of hearings and a report by the appropriate Senate committee." The bill never passes the Senate. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (October 6, 1972): 34270-34273.

    • Senator Mondale introduces Senate Joint Resolution 146: "We must press forward with our efforts to end that educational inequality which has resulted from generations of racial and ethnic discrimination. And we must do much more." The measure is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (August 3, 1973): 27858.

    • Senator Mondale argues against two amendments proposed by Senators Gurney (R-FL) and Ervin (D-NC) to S. 1539 (introduced in April by Senator Pell, D-RI) that address school desegregation; he argues that Senator Gurney's amendment to "prohibit requiring the assignment of students beyond either the school nearest their homes, or the next nearest school" is void "since it flies in the face of Supreme Court decisions that are based upon the Constitution" in addition to being "an invitation to massive re-litigation;" he points out that Senator Ervin's amendment that attempts to impose a "free choice" system of student assignment was rejected by the Supreme Court in 1968 "because it proved a device to continue, rather than remedy, discrimination." He states that "The pending amendments amount to an official endorsement of continued discrimination in our public schools." 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (May 15, 1974): 14849-14939. (Mondale at 14851)

    • Debate on S. 1539, the Education Amendments of 1974; Senator Mondale explains that "the purpose of the educational equity provision in the bill is to provide a wide variety of concerned individuals, agencies, and institutions on all levels of education with the wherewithal to end sexual discrimination." The bill is indefinitely postponed in the Senate. Provisions are inserted into H.R. 69 which becomes Public Law 93-380 in August. 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 120 (May 20, 1974): 15278-15306.

    • Senator Mondale submits his testimony before the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor-HEW with regard to the proposed reduction of funding for the Emergency School Aid Act. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (March 19, 1975): 7542-7544.


    Women's Rights
    • Senator Mondale explains his support for cosponsoring the equal rights amendment: "We have made great strides in this country in recent decades toward eliminating the legal basis for discrimination against members of minority groups. But we still have a long way to go to provide the same protection to the majority of our population--the 51 percent who are women.... Discrimination against women is a documented, proven fact in many aspects of American life and a cruel reality that mars the ambitions of untold numbers of American women." 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (March 17, 1972): 8893-8894.

    • Senator Bayh (D-IN) submits a speech given by Senator Mondale on women's rights. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (April 20, 1972): 13781-13782.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 2518, the Women's Educational Equity Act: "The legislation I am introducing today is a logical complement to title IX. It would provide support for a wide variety of programs seeking to eliminate discrimination in many phases of education--teaching, administration, curriculum development, and counseling, to name only a few." The bill is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (October 2, 1973): 32483-32492.

    • Senator Mondale introduces S. 2603, the Women's Vocational Education Amendments of 1975, providing "a new and much-needed emphasis on women's roles within the vocational education system. The bill is referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (November 3, 1975): 34668-34670.


    Equal Opportunity
    • Senator Mondale argues against the proposed amendment by Senator Dirksen (R-IL) to S. 1564, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (introduced in March by Senator Mansfield, D-MT). He reviews the history of legislative apportionment, stating that the Supreme Court has ruled in several cases that "the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment requires substantially equal legislative representation for all citizens of the State." Senator Mondale claims: "How ironical it would be for the same Congress which passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to approve and submit to the States a constitutional amendment which would make possible the deprivation of Negro and white citizens' right to equal representation in our State legislatures.... In short, the amendment proposed today is tantamount to legalized ballot-box stuffing. Dilution of the right to have one's vote count is wrong whether done by election fraud, or by legalizing a discount rate on a man's vote. I see little difference between stuffing extra votes into the ballot box and stuffing extra weight into the votes of certain citizens. The result is the same--to pervert our system of representative government." After months of debate the bill is signed into law in August and becomes Public Law 89-110. 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (July 27, 1965): 18355-18360.

    • Further discussion on Senator Dirksen's (R-IL) amendment to S. 1564. (The discussion is under National American Legion Baseball Week) 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (July 27, 1965): 18865-18869. (Mondale at 18868)

    • Senator Mondale urges the Senate to pass S. 3296, the Civil Rights Act of 1966 (introduced in April by Senator Hart, D-MI): "It is essential that the civil rights bill pass the Senate at this session. We are not dealing with some distant goal which can be achieved as well next year as this. The passage of the bill is a matter of prime national urgency. . . . If there is to be any hope of moderation in the solution of our racial problems, we must prove that Government can move effectively to close the gap between the goal of equal rights for all and the reality of discrimination." The bill is referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. 89th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 112 (September 12, 1966): 22290.

    • Senator Mondale submits a statement in support of S. 843, the Full Opportunity and Social Accounting Act (introduced by Senator Mondale in February - see Public Welfare): "This statement by four prominent Negro Americans rightfully reminds both the Negro and white communities that just as no injustice justifies violence, no injustice can be forgotten once the violence subsides. The underlying causes for violent civil disorders do not vanish with the coming of dawn as do the snipers and looters. Those deeply rooted, pernicious problems of human injustice, deprivation and despair remain for reasonable men to deal with." 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (August 2, 1967): 20939-20940.

    • Senator Mondale calls attention to the fact that the Department of Defense awarded contracts to three Carolina textile firms that were guilty of discrimination: "I have therefore asked the Secretary of Labor to cancel the contracts already awarded to these firms and to direct the DOD not to enter into contracts with any of the eight largest Carolina textile firms until they have submitted a program for compliance with the Executive order satisfactory to him. Unless the recent precedent established by DOD and Deputy Secretary Packard is reversed, the Federal Government's policy against subsidizing discrimination through Government contracts is in real danger." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (March 4, 1969): 5253-5259.

    • Senator Mondale urges Clifford Hardin, Secretary of Agriculture, "to tell us specifically what steps he intends to take to improve the dismal civil rights record of his Department" before Congress appropriates funds for USDA programs. Senator Mondale argues that "This is a very serious matter. At a time when we are faced with grave domestic problems and when too many Americans no longer have faith in the ability of Government to remedy their grievances, it is absolutely essential that the Federal Government eliminate all vestiges of discrimination--whether in the implementation of its programs or in its dealings with private contractors." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (July 1, 1969): 18049-18051.

    • Senator Mondale expresses frustration at the House's vote against striking anti-civil rights language from the 1970 Labor-HEW bill; he blames the Nixon administration for failing to provide leadership in civil rights: "Last week in the House of Representatives saw the writing of another miserable chapter in the Nixon administration's deplorable civil rights record. The administration stood by and watched—almost as disinterested observers—while the House voted down attempts to strike anti-civil rights language from the 1970 Labor-HEW appropriations bill." 91st Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 115 (August 8, 1969): 23024-23025.

    • Debate on S. 2515, to further promote equal employment opportunities for American workers (reported in January from the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare); Senator Mondale argues against an amendment proposed by Senator Dominick (R-CO) that would eliminate the cease and desist powers included in the bill: "The chief issue here is not a dry procedural one. It is a question of whether we believe that human rights are important enough to be accorded the same remedy which is found very widely in other administrative organizations within the Federal Government and in most State and local governments. The question is whether we are of the opinion that human rights, as against commercial rights or labor rights, are of such a low priority that we should continue according the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission a second-cousin status, thereby consigning it to a largely advisory and conciliatory role." The amendment is rejected. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (January 24, 1972): 927-945. (Mondale at 928)

    • Further debate on S. 2515 to further promote equal employment opportunities for American workers; Senator Mondale proposes a substitute amendment to the one introduced by Senator Gambrell (D-GA) that would award attorney fees up to $5000 to small business if they are the prevailing party in a discrimination case. Senator Mondale's amendment is agreed to. The bill passes the Senate in February; H.R. 1746 is passed in lieu. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (January 31, 1972): 1841-1848. (Mondale at 1844)


    General Civil Rights

    Civil Strife
    • Senator Mondale condemns the violence and abuse directed to a peaceful group of civil rights protestors: "We can no longer remain silent in the face of such outrageous denials of basic human rights and decency, and I think the situation should command the immediate attention of the Senate of the United States." 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (March 8, 1965): 4350-4352.

    • Senator Mondale reacts to riots in Los Angeles: "If we put down the violence while ignoring the conditions which breed violence, then our action today will be but a prelude to greater disasters tomorrow. We must go further, we must attack the seeds of poverty and discrimination which cause such tragedies, if we are not to reap a further harvest of bitterness and shame for America." 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (August 17, 1965): 20625-20627.

    • Senator Mondale voices support for Senate Joint Resolution 97 (introduced by Senator Harris, D-OK), establishing a commission on civil strife: "The Special Commission on Civil Strife which Senator Harris and I are proposing will provide a much more broadly based investigation, with representatives from the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Federal Government, from State and city governments, from private citizens and civil rights constituencies. We need to tap the resources of all these areas of our society if we are to get at the sources of discontent and violence and provide the intergovernmental machinery to prevent disorder where possible and to deal with it quickly and effectively when necessary." The measure is referred to the Committee on Government Operations. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (July 25, 1967): 20193-20201.

    • In response to an article in Barron's in which the Office of Economic Opportunity was blamed for recent riots, Senator Mondale provides an "issue-by-issue refutation of the charges" against the Office of Economic Opportunity. 90th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 113 (October 24, 1967): 29776-29778.

    • Senator Mondale's eulogy for the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (April 5, 1968): 9136-9143. (Mondale at 9138)

    • Senator Mondale and others discuss the events that took place at Jackson State College (Mississippi) in which law enforcement officers opened fire at a girls' dormitory for no apparent reason. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (May 21, 1970): 16540-16545.


    Speeches & Publications Submitted
U.S. Senate hearings on civil rights and school desegregation in which Senator Mondale participated: [Top]
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1969: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education, pt. 1, 91st Cong. (1969).

  • Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1969: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education, pt. 2, 91st Cong. (1969).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Educational Opportunity, An Introduction, pt. 1A: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Educational Opportunity, Appendix, pt. 1B: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Educational Opportunity, An Introduction - continued, pt. 2: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, Desegregation Under Law, pt. 3A: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, Desegregation Under Law, pt. 3B: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, Desegregation Under Law, pt. 3C: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, Desegregation Under Law, pt. 3D: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, Desegregation Under Law, pt. 3E: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, Mexican American Education, pt. 4: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, De facto Segregation and Housing Discrimination, pt. 5: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, Racial Imbalance in Urban Schools, pt. 6: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, Inequality of Economic Resources, pt. 7: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Equal Educational Opportunity: Equality of Education Opportunity, Puerto Rican Children, pt. 8: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Emergency School Aid Act of 1970: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education. 91st Cong. (1970).

  • Women's Educational Equity Act of 1973: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education, 93rd Cong. (1973).

Selected Senate committee prints and reports on civil rights and school desegregation: [Top]

    Committee Prints

  • Staff of the Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Proposed Equal Employment Opportunities Enforcement Act of 1971 (Comm. Print 1971).

  • Staff of the Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Legislative History of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 (H.R. 1746, P.L. 92-261). Amending Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Comm. Print 1972).

  • Committee Reports

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Emergency School Aid and Quality Integrated Education Act of 1971, S. Rep. No. 92-61 (1971).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Education Amendments of 1971, S. Rep. No. 92-346 (1971).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Equal Employment Opportunities Enforcement Act of 1971, S. Rpt. 92-415 (1971).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1971, S. Rep. No. 92-416 (1971).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Education Amendments of 1972, S. Rep. No. 92-604 (1972).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, S. Rpt. 92-681 (1972).

  • Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, Education Amendments of 1972, S. Rep. No. 92-798 (1972).

  • Congressional Research Service Reports

  • Wayne Riddle, Cong. Research Serv., 72-160 ED, Legislative History - Senate Floor Consideration of S. 659, the Education Amendments of 1972 (1972).


Endnotes:[TOP]
  1. 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (March 8, 1965) at 4350-4352.
  2. 89th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 111 (August 17, 1965) at 20625.
  3. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 17, 1970) at 3581.
  4. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 19, 1970) at 4133.
  5. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 19, 1970) at 4137.
  6. 90th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 114 (September 23, 1968) at 27823.
  7. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (March 20, 1970) at 8384.
  8. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (December 31, 1970) at 44418.
  9. 91st Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 116 (February 28, 1970) at 5378.
  10. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (February 18, 1972) at 4577.
  11. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (May 24, 1972) at 18845.
  12. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (May 24, 1972) at 18846.
  13. 92nd Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record 118 (March 17, 1972) at 8894.
  14. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 119 (October 2, 1973) at 32484.
  15. 94th Cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record 121 (November 3, 1975) at 34668.